Medical Terms for Goats - Glossary
Goat Farming in South Africa

© Marinda Louw
Look for signals in your goat's behaviour to indicate symptoms of diseases. Goat should be curious, lively and not separate from the herd.

Glossary of Medical Terms relating to Goat Farming in South Africa

Aetiology - The cause or origin of a disease.

Amino Acids - Organic compounds which occur naturally in plant and animal tissues. Amino acids are the main building blocks of protein.

Anthelmintic - A drug used to expel worms or internal parasites - a dewormer.

Antibiotic - A substance produced by micro-organisms or synthetically (penicillin, Streptomycin, etc.) which has the ability to inhibit or destroy certain micro-organisms.

Antibodies - Substances produced by the body as a reaction to viruses, bacteria or toxins. Antibodies exert a specific action against the agent under whose influence they were formed.

Antigen - A substance which will stimulate the production of antibodies when introduced into the body. Vaccines contain antigens which stimulate the animal to build antibodies against the disease.

Antigen (Killed or Inactive) - Substance which induces the first or recognition stage of antibody production. A second injection is necessary several days or more after the first injection to induce the antibody production stage.

Antigen (Living) - Substance which stimulates both stages of antibody production.

Antiseptic - Inhibiting growth of micro-organisms, or a material which inhibits such growth.

Antiserum - Serum containing antibodies. It produces short-term protection usually two to four weeks.

Antitoxin - Serum containing specific poison-neutralizing antibodies.

Astringent - A drug which contracts tissues and lessens secretions.

Atrophy - Wasting away or shrinking in size of organ, tissue or cell.

Attenuation - The process of decreasing virulence or altering a disease-producing agent by growing it in another host, usually for the purpose of making a vaccine.

Autogenous vaccine - Vaccine made from organisms form a specific disease outbreak.

Bacteria - A group of one-celled micro-organisms, the smallest of the once-celled plants.

Bactericidal - Possessing the property of killing bacteria

Bacterin - A product containing modified or killed bacteria, prepared for use as a vaccine.

Biological - Medication derived from a living source. Generally used for disease prevention (see bacterin, vaccine, antiserum, antitoxin)

Booster Vaccine - A second or multiple vaccination given to increase an animal's resistance to a specific disease.

Caustic Corrosive - an agent capable of destroying living tissues.

Coccidia - Protozoan organisms which infect the cells lining the digestive tract.

Diluent - The liquid used to restore dried vaccines and increase to volume any substance.

Drench - Give liquid by mouth.

Electrolytes - Compounds made from combinations of various mineral components which help keep the fluid balance of the body under control

Gestation - Pregnancy (150 days in a goat)

Haemorrhage - Loss of blood

Immunity - The ability of the body to resist or to overcome infection. Antibodies play a large part in immunity.

Immunity (Acquired) - The resistance a previously susceptible animal has to an infectious disease.

Immunity (Active) - Immunity in which the protective factors against a disease are produced within the body itself.

Immunity (Innate) - Inherited (genetic) resistance to an infectious disease.

Immunity (Maternal) - A form of passive immunity resulting from immune factors being passed from the mother to the offspring. This may be accomplished either in the uterus or through the milk (especially the colostrum).

Immunity (Passive) - Immunity resulting from the transfer of protective factors from one individual to another. This may be done artificially by obtaining serum from an immune animal and injecting it into a non-immune animal. Passive immunity is of short duration measured in terms of days or weeks.

Infection - The successful invasion and growth of disease-producing agents (bacteria, viruses, etc.) in the tissues of the body.

Inflammation - A specific response of the body to injury. Such injury may be due to living agents or from mechanical, chemical or electrical causes. Inflammation is characterized by redness, pain, heat and swelling.

Inoculate - To introduce immune serum, vaccines, or other antigenic material for preventive, curative or experimental purpose.

Insecticide - An agent which kills insects.

Intramuscular Injection (IM) - An injection into a muscle.

Intraperitoneal (IP) - An injection into the abdominal cavity.

Intravenous (IV) - Injection into a vein.

L.D. - Lethal dose, a fatal one.

Metabolism - The sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living substance is produced and maintained.

Pharmaceutical - A medicinal drug as opposed to a biological.

Serum - The fluid portion of blood without the cells or clotting factors. Serum obtained from animals immune to a particular condition and injected into other individuals in order to give the recipient a degree of passive immunity is known as antiserum

Stress - All factors which tend to render the animal more vulnerable to disease. Stress may be environmental, nutritional, psychic or physical.

Subclinical - Without clinical manifestation, said of early stages of, or a slight degree of, a given disease.

Subcutaneous (SQ) - Just beneath the skin.

Toxaemia - A general poisoning due to the absorption of toxins, usually bacterial products formed at the site of an infection. Literally, blood poisoning.

Toxin - Poisonous substance.

Toxoid - A toxin which has been treated so as to destroy its toxicity but still leave it capable of stimulating the formation of antibodies when injected into the body.

Trauma - A wound or injury.

Vaccines - Products prepared for the purpose of giving active immunity. Vaccines may be made from viruses, bacteria, or protozoa, either living or killed, or from toxins.

Vaccines (Bacterial) - A vaccine which protects against diseases caused by bacteria.

Vaccine (Killed Virus) - A vaccine produced by infecting an animal, chick embryo or animal tissue with a specific virus. The virus is harvested at the height of infection and subjected to killing agents. The dead virus stimulates the production of antibodies when injected into an animal.

Vaccine (Live Virus) - A vaccine produced by growing a live culture of the virus from which the vaccine is prepared.

Vaccine (Modified Live Virus) - A vaccine made from an attenuated virus.

Vaccine (Monovalent) - A vaccine which produces only one disease immunity.

Vaccine(Polyvalent) - A vaccine which produces immunity against two or more diseases.

Vaccine (Viral) - A vaccine which protects against diseases caused by viruses.

Virus - Minute infection agents, smaller than most bacteria and capable of multiplying only with a living, susceptible host cell. Viruses can remain alive for variable periods outside of living tissues. Some viruses produce severe disease, others are relatively harmless.

Common Latin and Greek Terms and Abbreviations used in Prescription Writing

a.c. ante cibum - of each
ad ad to: up to
ad lib. Ad libitum - at pleasure
alternis horis alternis horis - every other hour
ante ante - before
aq. aqua - water
b.i.d. bis in die - twice daily
bis bis - twice
c cum - with
caps capsula - capsule
et et - and
gtt gutta(e) - drops
H. hora - an hour
hor.som.,H.S. hora somni - at bedtime
in d. in dies - daily
inter inter - between
lin. linimentum - linament
liq. liquor - a solution
lot. lotio - lotion
noctis noctis - of the night
non non - not
non.rep. non repetatur - do not repeate
O.D. oculus dexter - right eye
O.L. oculus laevus - left eye
omn. or. omni hora - every hour
p.c. post cibos - after eating
p.r.n. pro re nata - as needed
q.h. quaque hora - every hour
q.i.d. quater in die - 4 times a day
q.s. quantum sufficit - as much as needed
t.i.d. ter in die - 3 times a day
ut dict. ut dictum - as directed

By Linda Cambell - Goatconnection.com