Umnotho Wendabuko wamaTsonga

Ezolimo

©Dr Peter Magubane
I-Tsonga eyashiya ogwini ekhulwini le-19 yaletha imithombo emisha yokudla eya eTransvaal, kuhlanganise ne-cassava (i-manioc), izinhlobo ezithile zamagundane, amazambane kanye namahlumela. Okubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi izitshalo zommbila nezinyoni ezilethwe yizi colonist ezindaweni zabo ezintsha zokuhlala. Umsebenzi omkhulu wezolimo wenziwa cishe yibo bonke abesifazane, ngaphandle kokuqedwa kokuqala komhlaba okwakumthwalo wemfanelo wabesilisa. Amadoda nawo ahlama ugwayi (fole). Ukuvuna ukuvuna kwakuvame ukubambisana, kwenziwa ngokuzungeza, nemiphakathi endaweni eqoqa ukuvuna isivuno somuntu ngamunye. Umnikazi uzosebenza njengesibamba futhi ahlinzeke ngobuningi bebhiya kanye nokuphumula ukuze kube yisikhathi sesikhathi sokugubha, ngokusebenzisana komphakathi okuyingxenye ebalulekile yomcimbi.

I-Tsonga yenza ukushisa nokushisa ezolimo. Izindawo ezihlahleni zemvelo zachithwa futhi zishiswa, nezitshalo zakhula ezweni elihlanjululwe kuze kube yilapho isithelo salo siphule futhi isivuno sancipha. Kwabe sekuqalwa esinye isiqephu sezwe futhi amasimu athuthukiswa. Leli fomu lezolimo liholele ekuhambeni okuqhubekayo kwabantu njengoba kwakudingeka baqhubeke behamba kancane ekufuneni amazwe amasha. Njengoba abantu bekhulile, lokhu kuvame ukuholela emncintiswaneni womhlaba futhi, ngezinye izikhathi, kuxabana.

Ukuzingela

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngokwezingxenye eziningi zezingu-19 zokuzingela indlovu kwakuwumsebenzi obalulekile ogwini nasezindaweni zangaphakathi. Kuze kube yi-1860, amathani endlovu ayethunyelwa eLourenco Marques noma athathwa eThekwini njalo ngonyaka. Abazingeli nabo bathengisa izinqwaba zezikhumba zezinkukhu kanye nezinhlanzi, ikakhulukazi ekusetshenzisweni kweyunifomu yezempi yaseZulu neGaza. Njengoba izinkomo zezindlovu zanyamalala futhi amabutho ahlaselwa, abazingeli babulala izinyathelo ezikhulayo zebheja futhi bathengisa izikhumba nezimpondo kwabahwebi.

I-Venison yayiyingxenye ebalulekile yokudla kwendawo, futhi ukudoba umsebenzi obalulekile wokuxhumana. Izimvula zonyaka zaphenduka imibhede emifula eyomile yaba yizifufula ezinomsindo eziqhuma amabhange abo, zibeka amachibi amakhulu amanzi ezindaweni ezikude. Njengoba ilanga lasehlobo lomile amachibi, imiphakathi ehlomile ngamabhasikithi adilikayo awela emanzini angajulile efuna izinhlanzi.

Ekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka le-19 lemithombo yokulondolozwa kwemvelo yaqala ukuhlanganisa indawo enkulu eyayiyi-Kruger National Park ngo-1926. Imiphakathi eminingi isusiwe epaki futhi labo abahlala eduze nabo bevinjelwe ekuzingeleni umdlalo nasezinhlanzi ngaphakathi kwemingcele yayo. Ukuzingela nokudoba kuhlale kungabalulekile kubantu abaningi, kodwa njengabazingeli, hhayi abazingeli abazingayo, bafuna umdlalo.

Imisebenzi yamaTsonga

Sekudlule iminyaka engaphezu kwekhulu, amadoda aseTsonga athole umsebenzi emayini nasezikhungweni zokukhiqiza izimayini zaseNingizimu Afrika. Ngokuvamile kufanele baphile emahostele futhi badlule amahora amaningi ezitimeleni nasebhasini. Ubumpofu obuhlala ezindaweni zasemaphandleni kanye nethuba lwedolobha liye laholela ngaphezu kwesigamu seTsonga ezweni ukuthi lihambe njalo emadolobheni. Ezindaweni eziningi umnotho wasezindaweni zasemakhaya uxhomeke ekukhokhweni kwemali eyithunyelwa ekhaya yizisebenzi ezifuduka emadolobheni. Abesifazane besanda futhi basebenzela izinhlamvu ezimfushane emafamu aseduze.

Inkinga enkulu ukuthi kunabantu abaningi ezweni. Lokhu kuyingxenye ifa lomthetho wobandlululo kanti ingxenye yalokho kungabikho ukungafuni ukushiya izibopho zomphakathi, izinkumbulo kanye nobujamo obuhlobene nomhlaba. Imvula inokwethenjelwa kakhulu emithambekeni Escarpment esempumalanga, kodwa ezindaweni eziningi amanzi namvula ayakwazi.

Ukulima kwezomnotho kwenziwa ezindaweni ezingasetshenzisiwe kodwa ukuxhashazwa komhlaba kubanjwe isistimu yezinhlanga zakudala kanye nengqalasizinda yokuthutha empofu. Kubantu abaningi izinkomo zisengumthombo wodumo esikhundleni sokubaluleka kwezomnotho; futhi ayingaphansi komthombo wemali engenayo kunendlela yokuthola abafazi nesimo sokukhangisa.

Translated by Nsika Khoza