Ezoqoqosho Zohlanga Lwama Tsonga

Ezolimo

©Dr Peter Magubane
Uhlanga lwama Tsonga olwashiya unxweme nge sentyuri 19 lwazisa iintlobo ezintsha zokutya eTransvaal. Oku kutya okutsha kuquka icassava (manioc), iindidi ezithile zamandongomane, iitapile kunye nemithombo. Okona kutya kubaluleke kakhulu yayizizityalo zombona kunye neempangele ezazize nabantu abamhlophe kule ndawo. Umsebenzi omninzi wezolimo wawusenziwa ngabafazi, ngaphandle nge kokucoca intsimi. Oku yayingumsebenzi wamadoda. Amadoda ayelima necuba (fole).

Kwakuye kuncediswane xa kuvunwa izityalo. Uluntu lwaluncedisana ukuvuna, ngokuthi lutshintshiselane. Umzekelo, ukuba ngenye imini kuvunwe kumzi othile, ngemini elandelayo kuza kuncediswa komnye umzi ukulima. Umnini ntsimi wayeye asile umqombothi akhuphe nezimuncu-muncu kwabo baze kuncedisa. Oku kwakuye kubemsebenzi wolonwabo, nalapho abantu babedibana ndaweni nye bonwabe.

AmaTsonga ayethi ayitshise intsimi emva kokuvuna. Iindawo ezinamahlathi endalo zazigecwa zize zitshiswe. Kwakulinywa kule mihlaba igeciweyo de imihlaba iphelelwe zizichumiso kwehle nesivuno. Kwakufikelela eli lixa, kwakukhangelwa omnye umhlaba ozakugecwa kulinywe kuwo. Le ndlela yolimo yakhokelela ekufudukeni kwabantu, njengoko kwakufuneka baqhubeke nokufuduka bekhangelana nemihlaba emitsha yokulima. Njengokuba abantu besiya besanda, oku kwakhokelela kukhuphiswano ngemihlaba, kwaye amathuba amaninzi oku kwakudala iingxwaba ngxwaba nongquzulwano.

Ukuzingela

©Dr Peter Magubane
Isithuba seminyaka eliqela kwi sentyuri 19, ukuzingelwa kweendlovu yayiyinto ebalulekileyo kubantu abahlala elunxwemeni nakwindawo ezise mbindini. Iitoni ezininzi ze ivory zazithuthelwa eLourenco Marques okanye zisiwe eThekwini rhoqo ngonyaka yoo 1860. Abazingeli babethengisa inani eliphezulu lamafele ekati kunye noboya, ukuze asetyenziselwe ukwenza iiunifomu zomkhosi wamaZulu kunye nama Gaza. Njengokuba iimihlambi yeendlovu inyamalala nemikhosi iphela, abazingeli baqalisa ukubulala ngamanani aphezulu iinyamakazi baze bathengise amafele azo kunye neempondo koosomashishini.

Inyama ebomvu yayiyinxalenye yesidlo esibalulekileyo kubantu balendawo, kwaye nokuloba yayiyinto ebalulekileyo eyenziwa luluntu. Iimvula ezina ngamaxesha athile zaziphuphumalisa imilambo. Lamanzi ayezala de aphuphumalele kumachibi akufutshane. Njengokuba ilanga lisomisa amadama, uluntu lwalusebenzisa iibhaskithi ukuloba iintlanzi kulomanzana aseleyo.

Ekupheleni kwe sentyuri 19, abalondolozi bendalo baqalisa ukuvala umhlaba omkhulu. Lomhlaba wathiywa ngokuba yi Kruger National Park ngomnyaka ka 1926. Iintsapho ezininzi zafuduswa kule paku baze abo bahlala kufuphi nayo bathintelwa ukuba bazingele iinyamakazi okanye balobe iintlanzi eziphakathi kwimida yale paki. Ukuzingela nokuloba kusezezona ndlela zibalulekileyo zokuchitha isithukuthezi kuninzi lwabantu bale ndawo. Kodwa ke, sele bebonwa njengamasela (poachers), endaweni yokuba babonwe njenga bazingeli abazingcayo.

Ingqesho yamaTsonga

Kangange sithuba esingaphaya kweminyaka elikhulu, amadoda amaTsonga afumana ingqesho kwimigodi nemizi mveliso yelizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Jikelele, kufuneka bahlale ezihostela bachithe neeyure ezininzi koololiwe nooduladula. Intlupheko yase zilalini kunye namathuba asedolophini kubangele ukuba inani elingaphaya kwesiqingatha lamaTsonga ukuba bafudukele ezidolophini umphelo. Kwiingingqi ezininzi, uqoqosho lwase zilalini luxhomekeke kwimali ethunyelwa emakhaya ngabasebenzi abasezidolophini. Liya lisanda nenani labafazi abasebenza amathutyana amafutshane kwiifama ezikufutshane.

Eyona ngxaki kukuba baninzi abantu abahlala kulo mhlaba. Oku kungenxa yeziphumo zemithetho yezocalu calulo, esinye isizathu kukuba abantu abafuni kumka ecaleni kweentsapho zabo okanye kwezihlobo zabo. Abafuni kushiya ngasemva iinkumbulo kunye ubuni babo obuyanyaniswa nalomhlaba. Imvula ayinqabanga kangako emazantsi amawa, kodwa kwiindawo ezininzi umhlaba kunye namanzi anqabe kakhulu.

Ulimo lwentengiso lwenziwa kwiingingqi ekulula ukuzisa iindlela zokunkcenkceshelo, kodwa ukusetyenziswa komhlaba kubanjezelwa yindlela yakudala yokunikiswa komhlaba kunye neenkonzo ezilambathayo zezothutho. Kubantu abaninzi iinkomo ziseyinxalenye yesikhundla nokuhlonipheka endaweni kokusetyenziswa kwezoshishino. Kwaye azifane zisetyenziswe ukuzisa imali, ndaweni yoko kulotyolwa ngazo nokuqhayisa.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana