Umnotfo weSintfu wemaTsonga

Kufuya ne Kulima

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ema Tsonga lashiya incenye yendzawo leseceleni kwelwandle ngemnyaka welishumi nemfica aletsa tindlela letinsha tekudla eTransvaal, kufaka icassava (manioc), tinhlobo letitse temantongomane, emazambane nemabele. Kakhulu lobekumcoka kwakutitjalo temmbila netinyoni letaletfwa ngemakholonisi etindzaweni tawo letinsha tekuhlala. Incumbi yemsebenti wekulima noma kufuya wawentiwa cishe wonkhe bantfu lababomake, ngaphandle kwekususa noma kuhlobisa lendzawo lokwakukadze kungumsebenti wemadvodza. Emadvodza bekaphindze ahlanyele lugwayi (fole). Kuvunwa kwenhlanyelo kwakukadze kuyintfo yekubambisana, kwakwentiwa ngetindlela letigucukako, nemimango kulendzawo lehlanganela kuvuna inhlanyelo yamunye ngelikema. Lomnikati utowenta njengaloholako bese unika bobhiya labaningi kanye nekudla kwentela kutsi loku kube ngumsebenti lomkhulu, nekucocisana kahle kanye netintfo letibalulekile talomcimbi.

Ema Tsonga atilungiselela ngekubhula nekushisa lokulinyiwe. Tindzawo temahlatsi lamancane endalo bekajutjwa bese ayashiswa, bese kuhlanyelwa kulendzawo leseyihlotjisiwe kuze kubengulapho intalo incipha khona nekukhokha kuncipha. Kubese lenye incenye yendzawo iyahlotjiswa emasimu noma ematala ayakhuliswa. Lenandlela yekulima ichubela ekumeni kwekuhamba kwebantfu njengoba kumele bachubeke banyakate kancane kwentela kufuna indzawo lensha. Njengoba inombolo yebantfu ikhula, loku kwakhokha umcudzelwano wendzawo ne, ngaletinye tikhatsi, kucabana.

Kutingela

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngalokuningi kwemnyaka welishumi nemfica esikhatsini sakadzeni kutingelwa-kwetindlovu kwakukadze kuyintfo lebalulekile etindzaweni letiseceleni kwelwandle kanye nangekhatsi. Kute kube yiminyaka ya 1860, incwaba yema ivory yayihanjiswa ngeMikhumba ye Lourenco noma itsatfwe iyiswe eThekwini ngemnyaka. Batingeli bebaphindze batsengise tinombolo letinkhulu tetikhumba tabokati kanye neboya, kahlekahle kwentela kusebentisa kunyifomu yema Zulu nema Gaza emasotja. Njengoba tinhloko tetindlovu tatinyamalala kanye nemasotja bekabhonjwa, batingeli babulawa kukhulisa inombolo yetinyamatane bese kutsengiswa letikhumba kanye netimphondvo kubatsengisi.

Inyama yenyamatane kwakuyincenye lebaluleke kakhulu yekudla kwasendzaweni, bese kudvweba intfo lemcoka yemmango. Timvula tesikhatsi tagucula imibhedze yemifula leyomile yaba yintfo lecinile lephangisako yekuhamba kwemanti laphuma emifuleni lemincane, kugcwalisa tindzawo tekubhukushela letinkhulu ngemanti etindzaweni letidvute letinetinkinga. Lapho lilanga lasehlobo loma tindzaw temanti, imimango lehlome ngemabhasikidi latsanyelekako ngemanti lashonako kwentelwa kufuna timfishi.

Ekupheleni kweminyaka yelishumi nemfica kungatsandzi ingucuko kwacala kuvala indzawo lenkhulu yalomnyaka kwa 1926 lowaba yi Kruger National Park. Imimango leminingi yasuswa kusuka kulendzawo yekuphumulela nalabo bebahlala dvute lebebavaliwe kutsi batingele nekutsi badvwebe kuwo lamagede. Kutingela kanye nekudvweba kwasala kuyintfo lemcoka etikhatsini letengcile kubantfu labaningi, kepha kuyafana nekubulala, kunekutingela ngeligcabo, kutsi bafuna umdlalo.

Kucashwa Kwema Tsonga

Ngasosonkhe sikhatsi seminyaka yemakhulu, emadvodza emaTsonga atfola umsebenti emamayini ase Ningizimu Afrika kanye nasetindzaweni tekukhicitela. Ngaalokwatiwako bekumele baphile emahhotela phindze bengce emahora lamadze etitimeleni nasemabhasini. Inhlupheko yasemakhayeni kanye nematfuba asemadolobheni asente kahle hhafu wema Tsonga kulelive kutsi asuke ngalokuphelele emadolobheni. Etindzaweni letiningi umnotfo wasemakhayeni uyangemali yemholo lotfunyelwa ekhaya tisebenti tekuhamba letisemadolobheni. Ngekukhulisa bomake nabo basebenta sikhatsi lesimfisha emapulazini ladvutane.

Inkinga lenkhulu kutsi kukhona bantfu labaningi kulendzawo. Loku yincenye yekutfolwa kwemitsetfo yelubandlululo nekutsi kancane imiphumela yekungafuni kushiya lokwaboshelwa kwemimingao, tikhumbuto kanye nekutfolwa lokuhlangene nalendzawo. Kuna kwemvula kutsenjwa ngetindzawo letiphakeme nganhlanye Temawa aseMpumalanga, kepha etindzaweni letiningi umhlaba nemanti elitulu kuyindlala.

Kulimela kutsengisa kuyatsatfwa etindzaweni letinisekelekako kepha kuvuleka kwetindzawo kubanjwa ngendlela lendzala yetive kanye nekungabikhona kwetintfo tekuhamba. Kubantfu labaningi tinkhomo kuseyindlela yekuhlonishwa kunelizinga lemali; futsi ayindlela lephansi yekungena kwemali kunemizamo yekucela bafati kanye nesigabasekutsengisa.

Translated by Phindile Malotana