Ndzhavuko wa Ikhonomi ya VaTsonga

Vurimi

©Dr Peter Magubane
Vatsonga lava vanga suka e tibuweni ta lwandle hivo19th century vatise swilo swintshwa leswi tisaka swakudya e Transvaal, kukatsa na cassava (manioc), tinxaka tin’wana ta timanga, mazmbala na n’wahuva. Lexi xinga xa nkoka swinene akuri swimilani swa mavele xikan’we na masekwa leswi vanga tivisiwa swona hi valungu loko vata fika eka tindzhawu tavona ta vutshamo. Ntirho wotala wa vurimi awu endliwa hi vavasati, handle kaloko ku basisiwa kumbe kutshetsha nsimu rosungula leswi akuri ntirho wa vavanuna. Vavanuna ava rima va byala fole. Kutshovela leswinga byariwa aswitala kuva swi endliwa hi vanhu hinkwavo varikarhi va cincana, laha aku rhambiwa tsima, vaaki va hlengeletana vaya pfuna kutshoverla nsimu ya munhu wun’we. N’winyi wa nsimu hiyena loyi a amukela vanhu kutani a tiyisisa leswaku kuna swakudya na byalwa leswaku vanhu hinkwavo vata titimula, kutani kuva ntirho lowu nyanyulaka nakuva va tlangela.

Vatsonga ava tirhisa maendlelo yaku basisa nhova kutani vayihisa loko swita eka swa vurimi. Tindzhawu letinga tlhuma hintumbuluko ati tshetshiwa kutani nhova yihisiwa, naswona swibyariwa leswi aswi byariwa eka misava yoleyo aswi hlupheka kuva swikuma swakudya naswona aswi endla leswaku ntshovelo wuva wa nhlayo yale hansi. Endzhaku ka sweswo, kuta basisiwa ndzhawu yin’wana kutani ku byariwa swimilani. Ndlela leyi ya vurimi ayi endla leswaku vanhu vatshama varikari va rhurha hikuva valavamasimu yantshwa. Loko nhlayo ya vanhu yiya yikula, aswi endla leswaku vanhu va phikizanela masimu, minkarhi yin’wana swivanga swiphiqo.

Ku Hlota

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ku ringana nkarhi woleha wa 19th century laha ku hlotiwa ka tindlopfu aswiri na nkoka swinene ekusuhi na tibuwa ta lwandle nale ndzeni ka tiko. Kufikela hiva 1860s, nhlayo yotala ya timhondzo ta ndlopfu ayi fambisiwa hi xikepe yi hundza hile Lourenco Marques kumbe tiyisiwa e Durban lembe na lembe. Vahloti vatlhele va xavisa nhlayo yikulu ya madzovo ya swimanga swa nhova na voya bya kona, ngopfu ngopfu leswi aswi tirhisiwa tani hi tiyinifomo ta masocha ya maZulu nale ka Gaza. Loko mintlhambi ya tindlopfu yisungula ku hunguteka kutani mavhuthu ya hangalaka, vahloti ava dlaya ngopfu swiharhi swofana na timhala kutani va xavisa timhondzo na madzovo.

Nyama ya swihari ayiri swakudya swankoka swinene, naswona ku phasa tihlampfi naswona akuri migingiriko ya nkoka eka vaaki. Timpfula ta tinguva titatile milambu laha tibuwa tin’wana tinga buluka kutani mati ya tala hinkwako eka tindzhawu tale kusuhi. Loko dyambu ra ximumu xi omisa swinkobyani, vaaki ava teka mabakiti vaya kukuta tihlampfi eka mati lawa yanga entangiki.

Eku heleni ka 19th century vahlayisi va ntumbuluko vasungule ku nkambela tindzhawu va endla mintanga eka misava yotala laha hi 1926 kunga tumbuluka Kruger National Park. Vaaki votala va rhurhisiwile kusuka entangeni lowuya naswona lava tshamaka ekusuhi na wona ava yirisiwile kuhlota swiharhi swa nhova na tihlampfi letinga endzeni ka ntanga. Ku hlota na kuphasa tihlampfi akuri swin’wana leswi rixaka leri a ri fambisa nkarhi hi swona, naswona akuri leswi aswi endliwa hiku yiva kungari hikuva va tinyungubyisa hiswona, leswaku va hlota swiharhi swa nhova.

Ntirho wa Vatsonga

Kutlula century, vavanuna vatsonga vakume mintirho e migodini ya tiko ra Afrika Dzonga nale ka tindzhawu ta vumaki. Hi xitalo ava tshama e tihositele naswona vateka nkarhi woleha endzeni ka switimela na mabazi loko vaya naku vuya entirhweni. Vusweti byale makaya xikan’we na nkateko wale madorobeni swi endle leswaku Vatsonga votala varhurhela makumu kuya tshama e madorobeni nkarhi hinkwawo. Eka tindzhawu totala ikhonomi yale makaya yiya hiku kurhumeriwa mali muni emakaya kusuka eka vatirhi vale madorobeni. Kuve na kutlakuka ka nhlayo ya vavasati lava tirhaka nkarhi nyana eka mapurasi yale kusuhi.

Xiphiqo xikulu hileswaku kuna vanhu votala emisaveni. Leswi i xiphemu xa ndzhaka ya milawu ya xihlawuhlawu xikan’we nakuva mbuyelo wakuva vanhu vanga lavi ku hambana na vanhu vaka vona, leswi vaswitsundzukaka swinga hundz na vutitivi lebyi fambelanaka na misava leyi vanga eka yona. Mpfula yitala kutshembeka eka misava leyi voyameke yale vuhuma dyambu, kambe eka tindzhawu totala misava na mati ya mpfula swakala swinene.

Mapurasi ya leswi xavisiwaka yavakona eka tindzhawu letinga lulamela ku cheletiwa kambe ayakumeki kahle hikuva milawu yak hale ya swisivela nakuva kupfumaleka swo fambisa swibyariwa. Eka vanhu votala tihomu hitona rifuwu kutlula nkoka wotisa mali; naswona ati tali kuva tixavisiwa leswaku vanhu vata kuma mali kutlula kuva tiya lovola nsati xikan’we naku navetisa xiyimo.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni