Izindlu Zomdabu ZamaZulu

Ukuhlelwa kwezindlu

©Dr Peter Magubane
I-Kin yakha isisekelo sokuphila kwendabuko yaseZulu, okugxile emzimbeni (ukuhlala ekhaya). Kuze kube maduzane, lo mzi wawuhlanganisa nomphathi (umnumzane), nabafazi bakhe nezingane, abafowabo abancane nabafazi babo nemindeni yabo, futhi, ezimweni eziningi, namadodana ashadile. Ngokuhlala emadolobheni nokuphulwa kwezakhiwo zomphakathi ezedlulile, umuzi usebe mncane futhi omncane, ngokuvamile uhlanganisa umuntu oyedwa nomkakhe (noma abafazi) nezingane. Ngokwesiko, indawo yokuhlala eyayiyinkampani yocansi eyayizimele, lapho ukuphila okuphelele kungaholela khona. I-umuzi ngayinye yayinezinkomo zayo kanye nokunikezwa ubisi, nezinsimu zayo lapho ummbila nemifino kukhule khona ukuze zinikeze izidingo zabakhileyo emakhaya.

Ukwakha kanye nokuhlelwa komuzi kwakunjalo kulo lonke umphakathi waseZulu futhi kubonisa isimo sabafazi abahlukene. Izikhundla zabafazi be-commoner zazilawulwa ngokuya komyalelo ababetjhade ngawo, umfazi wokuqala abe ngumkakho omkhulu (inkosikazi). Ngenkosi kanye nezikhulu ezibalulekile, umfazi omkhulu, owayengavamile ukuba ngumkakhe wokuqala, wakhethwa ngokubonisana nabacebisi benkosi ngemuva kokuba esekhulile futhi wayefanele ukugqoka i-isicoco (ikhanda-indandatho).

I-umuzi yayinesisindo ngesimo futhi yakhiwa emhlabathini ovulekile obheke empumalanga lapho kungenzeka khona, lapho umthamo uwela emnyango omkhulu, ukuze indawo yokuhlala enkulu ibe yindawo ephezulu futhi ingabhekana nomunye umuzi. Phakathi nendawo kwakuyizinyosi zezilwane (isibaya) lapho izinkomo zazihlushwa khona ebusuku futhi okusanhlamvu kwakugcinwe emigodini engaphansi komhlaba.

I-perimeter ye-yeyre isivame ukwakhiwa ngezigxobo ezithintekile noma, uma zingekho izihlahla eziseduze, ziphuma ngamatshe. Izinkomo ezifuywayo zingalinganiswa nethempeli lamanzi: kwakukhona, futhi ezindaweni eziningi ezisemaphandleni, indawo lapho izinkokhokho zicatshangwa ukuthi zihlala khona futhi ngaleyo ndlela lapho kukhonjelwa khona imithandazo. Lapha imihlatshelo yenziwa futhi ngiyabonga ngenxa yezibusiso ezitholiwe. Esikhathini esidlule, abesifazane abangezanga ukungena emfuyweni, futhi akekho owesifazane owayengeyena 'ingane yendlu' evunyelwe ukungena, ngaphandle kwezikhathi ezikhethekile.

Kodwa-ke, phakathi nekhulu lama-20, ukuthambekela kwamadoda ukufuna umsebenzi njengabafuduki kuye kwaphoqelela abesifazane abaningi ukuba baphathe imithwalo yemfuyo yabo. Izindlu zomuntu ngabanye zakhiwa phakathi kocingo lwezinkomo kanye nomcingo wangaphandle (uthango) we-umuzi, lapho kutholakala khona ama-peckly pear noma ama-acacia anameva eside ukuze anikezwe ukuvikelwa kwabahlaseli.

Indlu yenkosi

Induna enkulukazi yayihlala indawo yokuhlala enkulu (indlunkulu), phezulu kwendlu (umuzi), ngokuqondile nomnyango omkhulu. Indodana yakhe endala kwakukhona, futhi emphakathini wendabuko nokho, uyindlalifa eyindlalifa futhi eyakhela uyise, futhi futhi waba nesimo esibalulekile ezindabeni zenkolo. Ngakwesokunene komnyango omkhulu we-umuzi, eduze nendawo yokuhlala eyisikhulu, wayeyindoda enesandla esifanele (iqadi), ogcwalise indima eyengeziwe kumphathi oyinhloko.

Enye yemisebenzi yakhe kwakuwukunikeza indlalifa uma inkosikazi enkulu ihluleka ukuzala indodana. Ngakwesobunxele kwakukhona umkwesokunxele wesifazane (ikhohlo) owayephethe isikhundla sesibili sesithunzi kule ndawo. Endabeni yesikhulu, umkami wesokunxele wayevame ukushada nomfazi wokuqala. Yena, nabo bonke abafazi abangaphansi kwabo abayingxenye yendlu yakhe (ama-amabibi), babezimele ngokugcwele endaweni yokuhlala enkulu.

Impilo yomphakathi

©Dr Peter Magubane
Indoda yendabuko yamaZulu yayilawulwa kahle ngokuziphatha okuqinile nokuziphatha komphakathi. Nakuba indoda ingase ibe nabesifazane abaningi, kwakungavamile ukuxabana noma umhawu, njengoba abafazi bebonke bezimele. Ngamunye wayenekhaya lakhe, futhi amasimu nezinkomo bamiswa ukuba azisebenzise. Wonke amalungu omuzi ayenendawo yawo nomsebenzi, kodwa isimo sabo sashintsha njengoba bekhula. Umlobokazi, ekuqaleni kokulawulwa noninazala, waba ngumama ngokwakhe, futhi ugogo wakhe, futhi ekugcineni waba ngumdala ohlonishwayo emphakathini.

Umfana waqala ukukhipha izimbuzi kanye nezinkomo. Emva kwalokhu waphothula isikhundla sensizwa enemithwalo yemisebenzi ekhethekile, kuze kube yilapho kubhujiswa umbuso waseZulu ngo-1879, imisebenzi yempi. Ngemva kokufeza le misebenzi iminyaka ethile, wavunyelwa ukuba ngumyeni nobaba; ngesikhathi esifanele wamukelwa njengelungu lomdala labadala. Wonke umuntu wadlula ngezibalo eziningi ezimisiwe, akekho okungafakwa kuwo ngaphandle kokulungiselela kanye nemikhosi.

Translated by Nsika Khoza