Indlela Yokuphila yamaSan

Impilo Yokucosha Nokuzingela

©Karl Svendsen
Ngezikhathi ezahlukene nezindawo, ama-San-izikhulumi aphile ngezindlela ezehlukene; I-Kalahari San ayidingekile ejwayelekile yeSan futhi, ngisho nakumaqembu e-Kalahari, indlela yokuphila ingahluka. Noma kunjalo, ukuhlolwa kwamaqembu aseKalahari, isibonelo, uJu / 'hoasi kanye noG / wi, bakha isithombe esiphezulu somphefumulo wokuzingela. Ukuhlukana komsebenzi phakathi kwamadoda nabesifazane kuyisisekelo somnotho. Ukudla kwezitshalo kuyisisekelo sokudla, kanti abesifazane, abaqoqi abayinhloko, banolwazi lobuchwepheshe emagqumeni: bayazi ukuthi nini futhi kuphi izinsiza ezinjengama-melon, izilimo eziyizigaxa, ama-corms nama-berries ezitholakala. Abesifazane baqoqa noma bagibe izilwane ezincane (njengezilwane ezinwabuzelayo, izinyoni kanye ne-antelope encane). Ngesikhathi bephuma ukuqoqa, bangase babone ukunyakaza komdlalo bese behambisa lolu lwazi kubazingeli. Amadoda angabutha ukudla, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sokuzingela esiphansi. Ukudla okuhlangene kusakazwa emndenini wombuthi, kuyilapho umdlalo omkhulu ozingelwa ngamadoda usakazwa phakathi kweqembu lonke.

Idumela elimangalisayo leSan njengabazingeli bezobuchwepheshe libangelwa amakhono abo okulandelela okuvelele kanye namasu abo okuzingela. Ama-trackers ase-San angalandela i-spoor kuwo wonke umhlaba, ngisho nokuphishekela i-antelope elimele phakathi kwe-spoor yomhlambi wonke, kuze kube yilapho ephuma emhlambini bese efa. Abazingeli basebenzisa imicibisholo nemicibisholo ehlanganiswe nobuthi (etholakala emabhungeni noma izinyoka) ezingangcolisi inyama. Kodwa-ke, kuvame ukuthatha isikhathi ngaphambi kokuba ubuthi busebenze, ukuvumela isilwane esifalayo ukubaleka kubahlaseli bayo, ngezinye izikhathi phezu kwamabanga amaningi, okwenza ukulandelela abanekhono kubalulekile.

Amakhono Okuzingela amaSan

Imicibisholo yaseSan yizinto zokuhlakanipha zokufa. Namuhla, njengasezikhathini zangaphambili, ziqukethe izingxenye ezine. Iphuzu elisetshenziselwa ukwenza amathambo noma amatshe amancane afakwe ngokuhlakanipha; Namhlanje izipikili eziputshiwe noma izingcezu zocingo ziyasetshenziswa. Iphuzu lifakwe 'kusixhumanisi', esithinteka ekugcineni futhi senziwa endaweni yenkomba yamhlanga. Isixhumanisi sifakwe ku-shaft ngendlela yokuthi, lapho umcibisholo uhlasela umgomo wayo, umthelela uphula isixhumanisi mahhala kusuka emgodini, ukunciphisa amathuba okukhishwa kwekhanda, njengoba kunesisindo esincane esilenga kuso.

Lokhu kusho nokuthi isilwane asikwazi ukuwuqeda kalula iphuzu ngokugubha umuthi. Ubuthi busetshenziselwa ngemuva kwephuzu, futhi ikhanda lomcibisholo kufanele lihlale esilwaneni isikhathi esithile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ubuthi lunamathele ngokwanele ohlelweni lwesilwane. Umuntu ophethe umcibisholo owabulala isilwane unelungelo lokuhambisa inyama, ngokusho kwemithetho yokuhlolisana, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi wonke umuntu uthola ingxenye. Ukukwabelana nokulingana okulinganiselwe kwamalungu eqembu yizinto ezibalulekile zezinhlangano zeSan. Nakuba amaqembu e-San engenawo amakhosi ezombangazwe, ubuholi ngokuqinisekile kwaqashelwa, ngokusho kobuchwepheshe kanye nekhono.

Emiphakathini yaseSan yendabuko, indoda yahamba nabazali bomakoti emshadweni. Kwakukhona imithetho eminingi yenhlonipho okufanele ibonwe phakathi kwalabo abashadile kanye nemindeni yabo, kanti labo abahlukaniswa isizukulwane (njengabazali nomkhulu nabazukulu) bavunyelwe ukuba 'nobuhlobo bokuhleka', lapho ukuziphatha okungahlelekile ngokomthetho kwakufanelekile. I-San iyaziwa ngokuthanda kwabo okuphawulekayo kanye nokuzicabangela izingane zabo.

Ngokuvamile, leli qembu lizohlukaniswa libe ngamalungu omndeni amancane ngezikhathi ezithile (ngokuvamile uma amanzi nokudla bebakhulu kakhulu futhi bahlakazeka), bahlanganisa kabusha kamuva. Ukunikezwa kwesipho ngokuhlelekile, okuthiwa i-hxaro yiJu/'hoasi, kuyindlela yokugcina ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwabahlobo nezihlobo kokubili nangaphezulu kweqembu. Lokhu kudala iwebhu yokusekela nokufinyelela ezinsizeni ezindaweni ezinkulu. Ukubaluleka kwezinhlelo zokuxhumana zaseSan kuncike ezinkolelweni ezingokwenkolo, ezindabeni zezinganekwane nasezintweni, futhi, ngokuzenzekelayo, e-rock art.

Translated by Nsika Khoza