Indlela Yokuphila yama San

Ubomi Bokuba ngu Mzingeli-Nomqokeleli Wemfuyo

©Karl Svendsen
Kumaxesha ohlukileyo kunye neendawo ezohlukileyo, abantu abathetha ulwimi lwama San baphile ngendlela ezininzi ezohlukileyo; ama San asehlathini okanye njengoko besaziwa njenge Kalahari Sans, wona awafani namanye ama San, nditsho nkqu nakumaqela eKalahari, indlela yokuphila ingohluka. Kungenjalo izifundo ngama qela eKalahari, umzekelo ama Ju/’hoasi nama G/wi, enza umbono othe tha wobomi bomzingeli- nomqokeleli mfuyo. Ukwahlulwa komsebenzi phakathi kwabafazi namadoda kubalulekile kwezomnotho. Batya ukutya okuzizityalo, abafazi, kunye nabadibanisi beenkosi banolwazi oluninzi lwasendle: bayayazi okokuba nini nokuba isukaphi imifuno efana nomxoxozi, umbona, izikhondo ezithile kunye namaqunube afumaneka phi.

Abafazi babeqokelela bathiyele izilwanyana ezithile zasendle (ezifana nezirhubuluzi, iintaka, kunye ne nohlobo lwebhokhwe yasendle i-antelope encinci). Logama baqokelelayo babejonga ukuhamba hamba kwenyamakazi ze baxelele abazingeli. Amadoda ayeqokelela ukutya nawo, ingakumbi ngexesha ekunzima ngalo ukuzingela. Ukutya okuqokelelweyo kwakusabiwa kwintsapho zabaqokeleli, logama inyamakazi ezinkulu ezi zingelwe ngamadoda zisabelwa wonke ubani kwiqela.

Ukwaziwa kwama San njengaba zingeli kusukela kwisakhono sawo sokukwazi ukuleqa nesakhono sendlela zokuzingela kwamandulo. Abalandeleleli bama San bayakwazi ukulandela umkhondo, kumhlaba wonke, ze baleqe ne antelope eyonzakeleyo kumkhondo womhlambi wonke, de iwushiye umhlambi ife. Abazingeli babesebenzisa izilingi namatolo ezifakwe ityhefu (esuka koqongqothwane neenyoka) kwaye ayingcolisi inyama lootyhefu. Kodwa ke ithatha ixesha phambi kokuba ityhefu isebenze, ivumele isilwanyana esifayo okokuba sibaleke kwabo basihlaselayo, maxa wambi kwimigama emikhulu, ze ke oku kufune abanesakhono sokukhangela inyamakazi.

Izakhono Zokuzingela zama San

Iinkcula zokuzingela zama San zizi xhobo zokubulala. Namhlanje, kumaxesha angoku, zinendawo ezine. Ikhona indawo eyenziwa ngethambo okanye amatye amancinci azintolo; kulemihla izikhonkwane ezenziwe mbaca okanye iintwana yocingo iyasetyenziswa. Lendawo ifakwa 'kumgxuma', incanyathiselwa macala ibanjwe endaweni yayo yi Rees collar. Lendawo ifakwa emngxunyeni ngendlela yokuba xa itola ifika kwixhoba, lamzuzu uqhawula unxulumano ikhululeke emngxunyeni, ukuze intloko ingaphumi kuba ingasindwa. Oku kuthetha okokuba izilwanyana azikwazi ukukhupha intolo ngokuzikhuhla emthini. Kufakwa ityhefu emveni kwalondawo, ze intloko yencula kufuneka ihlale ixesha kwisilwanyana ukuqinisekisa ityhefu ingenile kwisilwanyana. Indoda engumnikazi wencula ebulele isilwanyana inentlala yokuhambisa inyama yaso, ngokwemithetho yolo sapho, eqinisekiso wonke umntu uyafumana isabelo. Ukwabelana kunye nokulingana kuwo onke amalungu eqela zizinto ezibalulekileyo kwindawo zama San. Nangona amaqela ama San ayengenazo iinkosi zezopolitiko, ubunkokheli babuhloniphiwe, ngoko bukhulu namandla.

Kwindawo zama San zakudala, umyeni wayehamba ayokuhlala nabazali baka makoti xa sele betshatile. Yayimininzi imithetho yembeko ekwakufuneka ilandelwe phakathi kwabo batshatileyo kunye nabakhwenyana, logama abohlulwe sisizukulwana (abafana nootatomkhulu, nabazukulwana) babevumelekile ‘ubudlelwane obukhululekileyo’, apho ke babevumelekile ukukhululeka ngoko kuziphatha. Ama San ke adume kakhulu ngokuthanda abantwana nokuvisa kamnandi abantwana.

Ngesiqhelo eliqela lalizohlula ngokwentsapho ezincinci ngamaxesha athile (xa amanzi nokutya zinqabile zingafumaneki), baphinde badibane ethubeni. Ukunikeza izipho ngokuse sikweni kwakubizwa hxaxo ngama Ju/’hoasi, yayiyindlela yokugcina ubudlelwane phakathi kwabahlobo nezizalwane phakathi nangaphandle kweqela. Oku kwenza inxaso nokufumana uncedo kwindawo ezinkulu. Ukubaluleka kokuvana nokunxulumana kwama San kubonakala kwinkolo neenkolelo zawo, ubuxoki benkolelo kunye namabali, kakhulu ke kubuchule bemizobo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie