Uluntu lwama Xhosa ase Mzantsi Afrika

Ama Xhosa avela e-East Africa

©South African Library
Ubungqina bemveli buchaza okokuba ukuqala kweminyaka yama 1593 kwakukho amaXhosa asuka eMazantsi ukuyokuma eMthatha River kwindawo kulemihla eyaziwa ngokuba yi Mpuma Koloni (Eastern Cape), kwaye kuqikelelwa okokuba babekulo mmandla nakwixesha elingaphambili. Ngokuthetha ngama siko, AbaThembu, AmaXhosa kunye nama Mponomise babehlahla phezulu kwi Mpuma Koloni ku Mzimvubu River kwizizalwana phambi kokuba behlele ngase mhlanjeni.

Konke oku kuchaza okokuba ingqikelelo zemfundo ngemfuduko yama Xhosa asuka e-East Africa kwixesha lamandulo azinabungqina, ukuba ayibobuxoki okanye into engapha kwesono. Uphando olwenziwe ngoluntu lakudala, phezu kwezinye izinto, lulo elinokuthi linikeze ulwazi kweminye imibuzo kwixesha elizayo. Umzekelo, ukugrumba okuthe kwenziwa kwifama iCanasta Place ekufuphi kwindawo eyaziwa njenge East London kulemihla icebisa okokuba ukususela ngenkulungwane (7th century AD) Amaxhosa ayeqhubeka ukuphila kufuphi ne Buffalo River.

Ngexesha le 19th century amaHlubi, Zizi, Tolo kunye nama Bhele baye bafudukela kummandla kwathi exesheni waziwa ngokuba yi Transkei (ngoku uyingxenye yase Eastern Cape). Aba bantu, abathi baziwa njengama Mfengu, babexhomekeke kwi Nkosi ephezulu ukumkani uHintsa. Ngonyaka ka 1835, bathi babangwa ngabefundisi oonomishini kunye neziphatha mandla zama koloni ase Britane njenge ‘mbacu ezisuka emfecane’, umzekelo ukumkani wama Zulu uShaka ‘umlo opheleleyo’ ekupheleni konyaka wama 1820. Babephantsi kokhuseleko lwama koloni ukuze bancedise kwimisebenzi.

Iinkosi zakwa Xhosa zibonakala ngoku Thanda Isizwe sazo

Uluntu lwama Mfengu ase Transkei yayingabantu abangamajoni bama settler amhlophe awayesilwa namaXhosa kwimilo iFrontier Wars zika 1846-7, 1850-3 kunye no 1877-8. Ngenxa yenzame zokukhusela iCape Colony, ama Mfengu afumana abasemagunyeni abamhlophe namalungelo omhlaba owawungo wama Xhosa.

Ekukhuleni koku jongana ngaphambili kunye nempixano ezalandelayo nama Britane kunye nemikhosi, iinkosi zama Xhosa, phakathi kwazo uSandile no Maqoma, babonakala bezingca kwaye besilwela ukugcina nokuzimela, imihlaba kunye nabalandeli. uMaqoma, umlawuli onesiphiwo kwaye okwaziyo ukulwa nge guerrilla, wasweleka elibanjwa kwisiqithi iRobben Island ngonyaka ka 1878. Wathi uSandile wonzakaliswa kumlo nama Mfengu kwihlathi Isidenge Forest ngo May ka 1878.

Ekuswelekeni kwabo, ababini ababeshiyekile kumkhosi wama Xhosa ababechasene nolawulo lwama koloni (colonists), baye boyisakala. Ekuqaleni konyaka 1880 ama Mpondo aba ngawokugqibela kwi Nkosi zama Nguni ase Kapa ukuthi aziswe phantsi kolawulo lwama Koloni.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie