AmaXhosa aseNingizimu Afrika

IsiXhosa Kusuka eMpumalanga Afrika

©South African Library
Ubufakazi bomlando bubonisa ukuthi ngo-1593 kwakukhona abantu abakhuluma isiXhosa njengaseNingizimu eningizimu njengoMfula iMthatha endaweni eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Eastern Cape, nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi sebevele besesifunda isikhathi esithile ngaphambi kwalokho. Ngokwesiko somlomo, iThembu, isiXhosa kanye nePondomise abantu babehlala ezindaweni eziphakeme eMfuleni iKomvu uMzimvubu ngezizukulwane ngaphambi kokuba behlele ogwini.

Konke lokhu kusikisela ukuthi ukucatshangelwa kwabafundi mayelana nokufuduka kwabantu abakhuluma isiXhosa kusuka eMpumalanga Afrika esikhathini esidlule akusekelwe, uma kungekho okungahambi kahle noma okuthile okubi kakhulu. Ucwaningo lwezinto zakudala, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ngokungangabazeki luzokhanyisa imibuzo enjalo esikhathini esizayo. Isibonelo, ukuthungwa kwamuva okwenziwe epulazini i-Canasta Place eduze nosuku lwanamuhla e-East London kusikisela ukuthi, kusukela ngekhulu le-7 AD, abantu abakhuluma isiXhosa bebehlala behlala njalo eduze noMfula iBuffalo.

Ngekhulu le-19 leminyaka uHlubi, uZizi, uTolo kanye noBhele bahambela esifundeni kamuva esibizwa ngokuthi iTranskei (manje ingxenye ye-Eastern Cape). Laba bantu, ababaziwa ngokuthi iMfengu, babexhomeke ku-Chief Paramount Chief Hintsa. Ngomnyaka we-1835 bafunwa yizithunywa zevangeli kanye neziphathimandla zaseBrithani njengezigijimi ezivela eMfecane, okungukuthi 'impi yenkani' yaseZulu Zulu ngasekupheleni kwawo-1820. Zaba ngaphansi kokuvikelwa kwamakholoni ikakhulukazi ukuze zivule izindawo zokugcina zabasebenzi.

Izinduna ZamaXhosa Zaba Izishisekeli Zesizwe

Abantu baseMfengu baseTranskei babengabambisene bamasosha abahlali abamhlophe ngokumelene ne-Xhosa kwi-Frontier Wars ka-1846-7, 1850-3 no-1877-8. Ngenxa yemizamo yabo ekuvikeleni iCape Colony, i-Mfengu itholakale emagunyeni abamhlophe izibonelelo zomhlaba owawungowesiXhosa.

Embonweni ekhulayo emkhawulweni kanye nokuxabana okulandelanayo namabutho aseBrithani nekoloni, izinduna zaseXhosa, phakathi kwabo uSandile noMaqoma, zivela njengabaphathi bezempi abazama ukugcina ukuzimela, amazwe kanye nabalandeli. UMaqoma, umhleli wezintandokazi kanye nesibhamu esinamandla, wabulawa eDobben Island ngo-1873. USandile wabulawa ngokushona e-Mfengu e-Isidenge Forest ngoMeyi 1878. Njengoba kudlulile kanjalo, izikhulu zokugcina zesiXhosa ukuphikisana nokubusa kwamakholoni kwaphazamiseka. Ngasekuqaleni kwawo-1880 uMpondo waba ngowokugcina kwezinduna zeCape Nguni ezobekwa ngaphansi kokubusa kwamakholoni.

Translated by Nsika Khoza