Ma Xhosa va Afrika Dzonga

Ma Xhosa Vohuma e East Africa

©South African Library
Vumbhoni bya matimu byi hlamusela leswaku kusukela kwalomuya kava 1593 akuri na vanhu lava ava vulavula xi Xhosa kuya fikela nale dzongeni wa nambu wa Mthatha eka ndzhawu leyi namuntlha yitivekaka hi Eastern Cape, naswona swinga endleka leswaku vangava vave eka ndzhawu liya kuringana nkarhi woleha kutlula leswi tivekaka. Kuya hi ndzhavuko, va Thembu, ma Xhosa na vanhu va Mpondomise ava tshamile eka tindzhawu tale henhla ta Eastern Cape ta nambu wa Umzimvubu loko vangase chika kutshunela etibuweni ta lwandle.

Hinkwaswo leswi swingava swivula leswaku dyondzo yaku famba ka vanhu va ma Xhosa kusuka e East Africa eka nkarhi lowu hundzeke aswingari na ntiyiso, kumbe ku xisana kumbe swin’wana swo hlamarisa nyana. Vulavisisi bya archaeology, exikarhi ka swin’wana, aswikanakanisi leswaku swinga tisa ntiyiso nyana eka swivutiso leswi eka vumundzuku lebyinga kusuhi. Xikombiso, ku ceriwa lokungava kona eka purasi ra Canasta Place kusuhi na laha naumuntlha kunga e East London aku komba leswaku, kusukela hiva 7th century AD, vanhu va ma Xhosa ava tshama eka tindzhawu letinga ekusuhi swinene na nambu wa Buffalo.

Hi nkarhi wa 19th century Hlubi, Zizi, Tolo na vanhu va Bhele vafikile eka ndzhawu liya yinga hetelela yi vuriwa Transkei (sweswi i xiphemu xa Eastern Cape). Vanhu lava, vahetelele va hundzuka va Mfengu, lava avari valandzeri va ma Xhosa e hansi ka hosinkulu Hintsa. Hi 1835 va tekiwe hi vavuri va rito xikanwe na valawuri va valungu va British tani hi vahlampfa kusuka eka Mfecane', i.e. nyimpi ya hosi ya maZulu King Shaka leyingava kona hiva 1820s. Vafike va sirheleriwa hi valungu leswaku vata tekiwa va endliwa vatirhi.

Tihosi ta ma Xhosa Tihuma Tani Hivanhu Votshembeka

Rixaka ra Mfengu rale Transkei avari vahlanganisi va masocha ya valungu kulwisana ni ma Xhosa eka tinyimpi ta Frontier ta 1846-7, 1850-3 xikan’we na 1877-8. Tani hi mbuyelo wa mintirho yavona yaku tisirhelela eka Cape Colony, va Mfengu vayikume kusuka eka valawuri va valungu loko va vanyika misava leyi ayiri ya ma Xhosa kusukela khale.

Eka ku tlhontlhana loku kulaka eka frontier xikan’we naku pfukelana ka ma British na mavuthu ya colonial, tihosi ta ma Xhosa, exikarhi ka vona akuri na Sandile na Maqoma, vahumelerile tani hi vanhu lavanga tiyimisela ku seketela rixaka leri leswaku rita tama rahari na ntshuxeko, misava na valandzeri. Maqoma, munhu wa nyiko leyikulu hile tlhelo socha ro tiya, u lovile ari xivochwa e Robben Island hi 1873. Sandile a vavisekile swinene eka nkwetlembetano wayena na Mfengu e Isidenge Forest hi May 1878. Nakuhundza ka vona, masalela ya masoya ya ma Xhosa lawa yanga Alana naku fumiwa hi valungu yavuye ya wisiwa. Ekusunguleni kava 1880s ma Mpondo akuri vona vohetelela eka vuhosi bya va Cape Nguni kuva vafumiwa hi valungu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni