Bantfu bemaXhosa base Ningizimu Afrika

emaXhosa lasuka eAfrika leseMpumalanga

©South African Library
Umlandvo loshoko kutsi ekucaleni kwemnyaka wa 1593 bekukhona bantfu labakhuluma-siXhosa khashane endzaweni lese ningizimu nje Mfula uMthatha losendzaweni leyatiwa namuhla njenge Eastern Cape, nekutsi bebakadze bakhona kulesigodzi ngaleso sikhatsi ngaphambilini kwaloko. Ngekusho kwesintfu sekubonwa, baThembu, emaXhosa kanye nebantfu bemaMpondomise bebavele bahlala etindzaweni letiphakeme tase Eastern Cape eMfuleni we Umzimvubu ngebantfu ngaphambi behlele phansi eceleni kwelwandle.

Konkhe loku kunconota kutsi tinsolo tesikolwa ngebantfu labatihambi labakhuluma-siXhosa labasuka eAfrika lese Mpumalanga endzaweni lekhashane abakatfolwa, umangabe bangazange bahanjiswe kabi noma lokubi kwenteka kibo. Lucwalingo lwekufundza ngebantfu, phakatsi kwetintfo letinye, litokwenta kukhanya lokwenele ngemibuto lefana nalena yelikusasa. Kufana nekutsi, kugubha lokwentekile muva kulelipulazi Lelisendzaweni ye Canasta dvute nendzawo lekhona-nanamuhla iEast London ibona kutsi, kusukela ngeminyaka yandvulo yelishumi nesikhombisa AD, bantfu labakhuluma-siXhosa bebakadze bahlala kakhulu noma kancane njalonjalo dvute neMfula iBuffalo.

Ngesikhatsi sandvulo kumnyaka welishumi nemfica Hlubi, Zizi, Tolo na Bhele bantfu bebahamba bangene etigodzini lebekutsi muva besetibitwa iTranskei (nyalo lese iyincenye ye Eastern Cape). Laba bantfu, lebabese bayatiwa njengema Mfengu, bebayintalelwana yemaXhosa Lamcoka eSikhulu Hintsa. Ngemnyaka wa 1835 batsatfwa ngemamishini kanye nemakholonisi ema British ngemandla awo njenge 'bantfu lababaleke eMfecane', njengekutsi, iNkhosi yemaZulu 'ngemphi yayo lephelele' yasekupheleni kwemnyaka wa 1820. Baletfwa ngaphansi kwemakholonisi kutsi batfole kuvikeleka kwentela kutsi banyakate kancane kumsebenti lobekiwe.

Tikhulu temaXhosa Letivela Njengebantfu Labatsandza live labo Nalabalilwelako

Labantfu bemaMfengu base Transkei bebamasotja lahlangene nebahlali labamhlophe lebebalwa nemaXhosa lahlala lapho lelinye live lihlangana nalelinye ngesikhatsi seTimphi temnyaka wa 11846-7, 1850-3 na 1877-8. Njengemphumela wemandla abo ngekutilwela kwe Kholoni yase Cape, lamaMfengu atfola kusuka lapho kumandla alabamhlophe lilungelo lendzawo leyayikadze ingeyemaXhosa.

Njengengoba kwakukhula lokucudzelana kulomncele lapho kuhlangana khona emave lamabili nalemphumelelo yekucabana nema British kanye nemasotja emakholonisi, tikhulu tema Xhosa, phakatsi kwa Sandile na Maqoma, bavela njengebantfu labalwela kubuyisa inkhululeko yabo, tindzawo kanye nebalandzeli. Maqoma, lobekaphiwe ngekuhlanganisa kanye nemuntfu lonemandla ekulwa, wafa asiboshwa eRobben Island ngemyaka wa 1873. Sandile walimala ngemshikashika nema Mfengu eMahlatsini ase Isidenge ngenyanga yeNkhwenkhweti emnyakeni wa 1878. Ngekuphumelela kwabo, futsi, loko lokuncane lokwasala kwemasotja emaXhosa abavumanga imiyalo yemakholonisi. Ekucaleni kwemnyaka wa 1880 lama Mpondo aba ekugcina esigodlo sema Nguni ase Cape ngekuletfwa ngaphansi kwemitsetfo yemakholonisi.

Translated by Phindile Malotana