Ukufuya iiBhokhwe Zamandulo eMzantsi Afrika

©IVG
Iibhokhwe zaba kwiqela lokuqala lezilwanyana ukwenziwa izilwanyana zemfuyo ngabantu ukuze kuveliswe inyama, ubisi, izikhumba nengqolowa.

Iibhokhwe zamandulo zafika eMzantsi Afrika emveni kwexesha elaziwa njenge ‘Stone Age’ nentlanga ezazihamba kwaye zifumaneka kwindawo ezazihlala iintlanga ezahlukileyo. Imbonakalo yezibhokhwe ixhasa ulwazi oluthi zisuka kwindawo ezohlukileyo.

Ezintlobo zeebhokhwe ziquka:

Iintlobo zeebhokhwe zama Nguni (iMbuzi) – zinemibala-bala neendlebe eziphantse zajinga.
Empuma Koloni ama Xhosa – zinemibala-bala, neendlebe ezinkulu ezibhakubhaku.
Northern Cape - Zinendlebe ezibhakubhaku ezinemigqobho.
Uhlobo le Kunene (Kaokoland) – Zine mibala-bala, nendlebe ezibhakubhaku.

Iibhokhwe zamandulo zikwaziwa njenge ‘Indigenous Veld Goat’ i-IVG ngamafutshane eyathi yabhaliswa njengohlobo lwe bhokhwe ngo 2006 kwaze kwaqalwa umbutho wezintlobo zebhokhwe.

Ezibhokhwe zamandulo zikhuliselwa ukuze zikhule kakuhle. Zifana ne mbabala, nemilenze emide, kuze zihamba-hambe kakuhle kwaye zihambe imigama emide, ukuze zitye okanye zikhangele kwintlobo zezityalo ezikhoyo.

Zinga khangela (±60%) okanye zitye (±40%) kwintlobo ngentlobo zezityalo, amahlahla nengca, kwaye ziyakwazi ukukhetha ukutya okwezinga eliphezulu kwixesha elifutshane, zingafumana ukondliwa kwingqolowa yomgangatho ophakathi. Zinezikhumba ezityebileyo kwaye ezintle namabala azo, namabala-bala kwindawo ezisengozini ezifana (ntloko, iindlebe, impumlo, isifuba, ngemva nemilenze engezantsi), ukuzikhusela elangeni.

uNcedo lweeBhokhwe zama Ndulo

©Marinda Louw
Uphando lwezifundo lufumanise okokuba ezibhokhwe zamandulo asifane zifunyanwe zizifo zama khalane ezifana ne (heartwater), ziyanyamezela kwincukuthu kwaye ziyanyamezela kwimbalela nezifo kune bhokhwe zobisi nenyama. Oku kuthoba iindleko zokuzifuya. Inkoliso yebhokhwe zakudala zikhula isacholo ebusika, siphinde sichetywe ehlotyeni.

Ezibhokhwe zamandulo zichumile ngenzala zisencinci, zinexesha elide lokuzala kwaye zivelisa isizukulu unyaka wonke. Zingasengwa ukuyokuma kuma 274 entsuku, zivelisa ubisi olungange 1.46 kg yobisi ngosuku. Olubisi lune 5.2% yokutyeba kobisi (ucwambu), 3.8% le protein kunye ne 4.8% ye lactose. Iibhokwe zakudala bezivelisa umlinganiselo ophezulu wocwambu lobisi ne protein kune bhokhwe ezizi Saanen, kodwa ke imveliso yobisi kwibhokhwe zamandulo, ibasezantsi kakhulu.

Ukuncanca kwazo kufutshane, alwaneli ubisi nemfuno zamantshontsho. Oku ke akufani ne Saanen ne Saanen x ezamandulo iintlobo zebhokhwe ezikhulisiweyo zebhokhwe ezivelisa ubisi oluninzi kwixesha lenyanga ezilithoba okanye ishumi zokuncancisa. Ukukhetha ngobu nono nokukhulisa iintlobo zeebhokhwe zamandulo kwenze iintlobo ezintathu zenyama yebhokhwe eMzantsi Afrika – ibhokhwe iBoer, ibhokhwe iKalahari Red, kunye nebhokhwe iSavanna.

Iinkcukacha Manani ze Bhokhwe zama Ndulo

©Marinda Louw
Iibhokhwe zamandulo zimitha iinyanga ezintlanu ngesiqhelo – Phakathi kwentsuku ezingama 150 wentsuku - zizale amawele okanye ezizodwa ezibubunzima obungama 2.5 kg. Abantwana bakhutshwa endleleni xa be bubunzima obungama 12 kuya ku 15 kg. Kwinyanga ezintathu ukuya kwezintathu ezinesiqingatha kumakhwenkwe, kunye nenyanga ezintathu ezinesiqingatha ukuya kwezine kubafazi, nangona amanye amafana ase Mpuma Koloni ezilumla ikarapeter zabo (amadoda angakwazi ukuzalisa) kwinyanga ezintlanu.

Intshontsho le mazi elikhulileyo lingabubunzima obungama 35 ukuya ku 40kg. Uyakukulungela ukudibana nendoda kwinyanga ezilithoba. Inkunzi ekhulileyo izakuba bubunzima obungana 45 ukuya ku 50 kg.

Owona mlinganiselo we nkunzi nemazi, yi Nkunzi enye kwi mazi ezingamashumi amabini (20). Elona xesha lokwenza abantwana ngu April ukuyokuma ku June okanye September ukuya ku December.

Ibhokhwe yamandulo inobomi obuphakathi kwe (10) ukuya kwiminyaka elishumi elinambini (12).

Imveliso ze Bhokhwe zama Ndulo

©Marinda Louw
Inyama yebhokhwe (Chevon and cabrito) – intubululu nevumba elimnandi kwaye isezantsi kumazinga etyuwa.

Iintlobo zebhokhwe ezikhuliswayo kwindawo ezine heartwater (apho izifo zamakhalane zifumaneka khona) siyanyamezela kwezi zifo. iHeartwater ifumaneka kwindawo ezomileyo emantla eAfrika, kodwa esisifo asifumaneki kwi kwindawo eyomileyo ihlathi iKalahari nendawo ezikunxweme ezomileyo zase Namibia no Mzantsi Afrika.

Izikhumba – zivelisa iintlobo zemibala ezokwenza ‘imveliso zofele ezifukufuku’. Ufele olusemgangathweni olomeleleyo - olungo nakaliswanga ngamakhalane.

Ubisi - lusetyenziswa kwimizi emininzi kwaye lungasetyenziswa ukwenza isonka samasi (cheese).

iCashmere – iCashmere zinwele ezisulungekileyo ezivela ebusika. Imveliso ye Cashmere ilunge kumafama azikhulisela ukuzondla nentsapho zawo apho amafama asondeleleneyo nezilwanyana zawo, esazi okokuba kufuneka zichetyweni nini okanye zikanywe nini.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie