Ukuchongwa kwe Ngqawana

©Roger de la Harpe
Ingqawane (Hyena brunnea) ikwabizwa ngokuba yi strandwolf – ngesibhulu, oku kuthetha okokuba yi “Ngcuka yase lwandle” xa igama liguqulelwa ngqo esilungwini – ngenxa yomkhwa wayo wokuthanda ukuzula elwandle ikhangela ukutya.

Iingqawane zikwi zinga lesithathu zohlobo lengcuka ubukhulu kwezinye iintlobo ngenwele ezinde ezivukuvuku, ezimbala umdaka mnyama kakhulu okanye mnyama emzimbeni ze apha entanyeni zikhanye nase magxeni. Ezindala zikhula ukuya kuma 130 cm ukuya kuma 160 cm ubude, iimazi zivame ukuba bubunzima obungama 47kg, ze iimazi zibe ngama 42 kg ngoku qhelekileyo.

Imilenze yengqawane ime bubanzi inemigca kwaye mide kunemilenze emikhulu yayo yangemva, oku kwenza amagxa abemade kune ntsula. Intloko inkulu nenwele zimbalwa xa kuthelekiswa nomzimba kwaye zinendlebe ezinde ezitsolo.

Ingqawane zihlala ngokwazana zingamaqela amane akuma shumi amabini, kodwa ezinye iimazi neenkunzi ziye ziyokuhlala kwindawo ezizodwa zihambe zihlala. Iimazi ziye zidibane ngocantsi nee nkunzi ezimithisayo, okanye eziqhelekileyo nje kuloo ngingqi ezithi zifike zihlale kwindawo yeso siduko. Iinkunzi eziqhelileyo ziye zifune iimazi ezikwakulo ndawo ezilungele ukuya ecantsini, zisebenzisa imibhalo namavumba kunye ne ‘latrine sights’ ezenziwa kukwazana.

Ingqawane ziye zilungele ucantsi xa zineminyaka emibini ukuya kwemibini enesiqingatha. Ixesha lokudibana ngocantsi liphakathi kuka May no August, kuxhomekeke nokuba ukutya kuyafumaneka. Iimazi zizalela kwimingxuma esemfihlakalweni ze ezincinci kwisizukulwana zisiwe kwezinye iiveki ezimbalwa emveni kokuba zizelwe. Ziye zizale intshontsho elinye ukuya kwisihlanu emveni kwentsuku zakumitha ezingama 100 wentsuku. Zisela kumama de zibene nyanga ezilishumi eline sine ubudala (14).

Indlela Yokubulala Nokutyisa

©Nigel Dennis
Iingqawane ziyakuthanga ukutya ezinye izilwanyana, zitya iintlobo zezilwanyana ezimqolo mde kodwa ezincinci, izinambuzane, kunye neziqhamo. Ziye zitye zodwa, kodwa izilwanyana ezininzi nezisuka kwintlobo ngentlobo zingadibana ukuze zitye isilwanyana esikhulu esifileyo. Ziye zidakase kakhulu ebusuku, kodwa ke ziye zidakase ngakumbi emini, xa ukutya kunqabile.

Azikwazi ukuzingela, lilonke ke izilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni eziphilayo ziye zitye zona. Ezinye zinga ngamasela emfuyo ephilayo. Amafama ke kufuneka akhumbule okokuba ukubona ingqawane isitya umzimba wesilwanyana esifileyo akuthethi okokuba yiyo ebulele esosilwanyana.

Ngokubhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual, izilwanyana ezingamaxhoba ziye zibambiswe ngemva, ziwiswe phantsi zibulawe ngokuthi zicunyuzwe intloko ngemihlathi yazo eyomeleleyo, zilunywe ngemva entloko isicumze ivule ubuchopho okanye ilume ecaleni kwentamo, elinye izinyo likufuphi emehlweni wexhoba elinye lithe mvi emqaleni.

Izilwanyana ezise ncinci ziye zidliwe ziphele, logama kusala iimbambo zodwa xa ixhoba isisilwanyana esikhulu. Ubuchopho okanye amathambo amakhulu exhoba angacunyuzwa. Amathumbu azifane ziwatye.

uLawulo

©Roger de la Harpe
“ukunakekela” iingqawane kungane miphumela emihle, kuba ukhuphiswano nezinye izilwanyana ezitya ezinye ezifana nodyakalashe zingaluncedo ukuphelisa ilahleko kwimfuyo. Kwifama zokuzingela, ziye zidlale indima encomekayo ukuthintela usasazeko lwezifo ngokuthi kucocwe inyama.

Kufuneka iimpepha mvume ukubamba nokukhulula ingqawane, kuba zezona zinqabileyo kuhlobo lweengcuka, kwaye zibhalwe njengenye yezilwanyana ezinqabileyo ezinokuphela yi International Union of Conservation of Nature. Ngoku bhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual indlwana ye ngwe emabala bala yokubambisa enomzimba wegusha ofileyo iye isetyenziswe ngempumelelo ekubambiseni.

Ucingo lokubiya luka gesi zezona ndlela zingcono ukugcina ingqawane kude kwimfuyo ephilayo, logama zigcinwe esibayeni, abelusi nezilwanyana ezigada ezinye zinyasetyenziswa ukukhusela izilwanyana ukuze zingatyiwa ngezinye nee ngaqawana.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie