uDesmond Tutu kunye Nokuphela ko Calu-calulo

Ukukhululwa kuka Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ngomnyaka ka 1990 uFW de Klerk wabhengeza ukuba imibutho yezepolitiki ivumelekile ukuba iqhubeke ngokusemthethweni aze namabanjwa eze politiki abanjwa. Phakathi kwalo mabanjwa kwaye kukho no Nelson Mandela. Emva kokuba ekhululiwe entilongweni, uNelson kunye no Winnie Mandela bahlala kunye no Desmond Tutu kwikhaya lakhe elise Bishopscourt, eKapa. uTutu wasebenza ememelela ukususwa kwee sanctions kweli lizwe, kunye nokubekwa phantsi kwezikhali ngamaqela ebesilwa ucalu-calulo. Wathi wamemelela neenkokheli zecawe ukuba zibeke phantsi ubudlelwane bazo kunye nepolitiki.

Ngethuba kubakho ubundlobongela phakathi kwemibutho ye Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) kunye ne, ekupheleni kwala nyaka, uTutu wamisa uhambo lwakhe ebelusiya eMelika ukuze abekhona kwiingxoxo kunye no Nelson Mandela, FW de Klerk kunye nenkokheli ye IFP, uMangosuthu Buthelezi. Konke oku yayililinge lokuzisa uxolo phakathi kwale mibutho. Bathi xa bu bundlobongela busanda, wastyelela ilokishi ezichaphezelekayo ukuze ancedane namaxhoba. Ngenyanga ka Novemba walonyaka, waququzelela usummit yeenkokheli zecawe kunye nezo politiko ukuba khuthaza ukuba basebenzisane ekupheliseni ubu bundlobongela. Ngeli xesha, uTutu wayekhathwazwa yimpilo enkene-nkene, neyakhokelela ekubeni aye kuphumla e Atlanta, Georgia isithuba seenyanga ezine.

Echulumancele iRainbow Nation

©Eric Miller
Xa kwakulungiselela unyulo lika wonke wonke ngomnyaka ka 1994, uTutu wayechulumanciswe kukubona ukuba amaphupha akhe ngeli lizwe azakude afezekiseke. Wavumela ukuba ubuso bakhe busetyenziswe kuma qwaku-qwaku azakuxhonywa ogayo voti. Kwaye wathi uNelson Mandela akunyulwa njengo mongameli, waququzela wahlela kweli cala yezenkolo kwimibhiyozo yokubeka umongameli ngokusesikweni. uTutu wema kwelithi makubekho umcimbi oquka iinkolo ezahlukeneyo, eziquka eyobu Kretsu, Muslim kunye nama Jewish.

Waxhasa ngokupheleleyo umbono wabantu abohlukeneyo abahlala kunye ngokuzola. Weza nesici esithi “rainbow nation”. Esi sici sasizakuqala ukusetyenziswa kuMzantsi Afrika omtsha, egameni labantu bazo zonke iintlanga, izithethe kunye neenkolo.

Usihlalo we TRC

©Eric Miller
Emva kokubhangiswa komthetho wocalu-calulo, kwema umbuzo wokuba uhrulumente uzajamelana njani nenkohlakalo/ namatyala ayenziwe kwiminyaka edlulileyo. Umbutho we National Party wawukwelokuba kuxolelwe abo babethe bona, logama owe ANC ume kwelo kuba abo babezinkokheli zelizwe, baxoxe enkundleni ze bawabanjelwe amatyala abo. Ekugqibeleni kwasekwa ikomishoni yenyani noxolelwaniso eyabizwa ngeTruth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established. Kwacekwa uTutu ukuba asebenze njengosihlalo wale komishoni. Injongo ye TRC yayikukuphanda ukuxhatshazwa kwamalungelo abantu, okwakusenziwa ngamaqela ayexhasa nawayechase ubuhrulumente bocalucalulo. uTutu wayeneqhinga elizizi hlandlo ezithathu zokusombulula lamatyala ayemi phambi kwakhe. Zazimi ngolu hlobo:

Amaqela atyhlolwayo achaze ngokupheleleyo nangokuphandle izenzo zabo: Isenzo sokuvuma.
Amaqela atyhlolwayo anikwe ithuba lokufumana ukuxolelwa ekutshutshisweni: Isenzo Sokuxolela.
Amaqela atyholwayo abophe iinduma kwabo bathe babona: Isenzo sokuzithoba/sokulungisa umonakalo.

uTutu wayechukumiseke kanobom ngamabali okuxhatshazwa kwamalungelo abantu awayewamamela kwaye amaxesha amaninzi wayeye angakwazi kuzibamba.

Kwathi kwakuvela amabali obundlobongela nokungcungcuthekiswa kwabantu ezandleni zombutho we ANC, lombutho wabanoloyiko lokuba uzakubanegama elibi eluntwini. Wawufuna nokulungisa ingxelo yokugqibela ye TRC ukuthintela umonakalo, kodwa uTutu akazange akuvume oko. Walumkisa ngokuxhatshazwa kwamandla ngelithi, njengokuba kwenzekile kwamanye amazwe ngaphambili, kungalula ukuba uhrulumente omtsha ucinezele abantu ufane nalo udlulileyo.

Ngomnyaka ka 1996 uTutu wathatha umhlala phantsi kwimisebenzi yakhe njengo Archbishop wase Kapa ukuze ajongane nomsebenzi wakhe kwi TRC. Wathi ngomnyaka ka 1998, wenza intetho ngengxelo enezigaba ezihlani. Lentetho wayeyenzela uNelson Mandela. Wachaza apho iTRC yasilela khona, kodwa wayonwabile ngumsebenzi wayo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana