UDesmond Tutu kanye Nokuphela Kweskhathi Sebandlululo

UNelson Mandela Uyatjhatjhululwa

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1990 uFW de Klerk wamemezela ukobana ukudingiswa kwehlangano ye-ANC kuyaphela kanye nokobana nezinye iimbotjhwa zepolotiki zitjhatjhululwile, hlangana kwazo uNelson Mandela wayekhona. Ngemva kokobana atjhatjhululwe ejele, uNelson kanye noWinnie Mandela gade bahlala noDesmond Tutu kwakhe eBishopscourt, eKapa. UTutu khabe asebenzela bona kuqedwe ama-sanctions egade enzelwe inarha le kanye nokubekwa phasi kwenkhali zinqhema egade zingakhambelani nebandlululo kanye nabadosi phambili bamakerege kobana bayele ukuzimbandakanya eendabeni zepolotiki.

Lokha nakusuka imiguruguru hlangana kwehlangano ye-Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) kanye nehlangano ye-ANC, kungakapheli unyaka loyo uTutu wakhansela amano wakhe wekhambo agade anawo lokuya e-USA ukwenzela bona akhulumisane noNelson Mandela, FW de Klerk kanye nomdosiphambili we-IFP, uMangosuthu Buthelezi ngokulinga kobana kube nokuthula hlangana kwabo. Lokha nakuthoma imiguruguru irhatjhekela emakrestini, waya kiwo wayokulinga ukurhelebha abongazimbi.

NgoSinyikhaba wonyaka loyo wahlela isamithi yabadosi phambili bamakerege kanye nabadosi phambili benhlangano zepolotiki kobana babarabhele basebenzisane ekuqedeni imiguruguru. Ngeskhathesi uTutu wagula, okwarholela kobana athathe isabatha yenyanga ezine enarheni ye-Atlanta, eGoergia.

Uthabele iSewula Africa etja Yemibalabala

©Eric Miller
Isewula Africa izokuthoma ukuthola amakhetho wayo wedemokhrasi kokuthoma ngonyaka ka-1994, uTutu wayethabe khulu kobana ibhudango lakhe selizokufezeka. Wavumela kobana ubuso bakhe busetjenziselwe emaphowusteni wokukhampeyina, begodu lokha uNelson Mandela nakakhethwa kobana abe nguMongameli nguye owahlela ihlelo lezekolo elalizokwenziwa lokha nakabekwa njengoMongameli. UTutu wagcizelela bona kube namahlelo wezekolo ahlukahlukeneko ekubalwa, ama-Muslim, Jewish kanye nama-Christians.

Gade asekela ngokuzeleko umbono wabantu abahlukahlukeneko abahlala boke ngokuzwana. Watlama ibizo le-'rainbow nation' ekhabe lisetjenziswa ngemva kokobana kuphele urhulumende wegandelelo weSewula Africa ngomoya wobuntu, wabantu bemihlobo yoke, amasiko kanye nezekolo ezahlukahlukeneko ekhabe bagidingana, batjhaphulukile bangakahlukaniswa.

Usihlalo we-TRC

©Eric Miller
Ngemva kokobana igandelelo liphele, kwaba nombuzo wokobana urhulumende uzokudlula njani emilandwini eyenziwa ngurhulumende wegandelelo ngeskhathi esadlulako. I-National Party khabe ikhulumela kobana ilitjalelwe kwenziwe ama-amnesty ingabekwa imilandu, lokha ihlangano ye-ANC yabiza abantu ekhabe babadosi phambili kurhulumende ukobana bathome bakhambele amakhotho mayelana nemilandu yabo abayenzako nanyana kobana bajeziswe.

Ekugcineni, kwatlanywa i-Truth and and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), kwabaywa uTutu kobana abe ngusihlalo wayo. Umcopho we-TRC kwakukusetjha ukutlhoriswa kwamalungelo wabantu okwenziwa zinqhema ekhabe zisekela bezirarhe umthetho webandlululo. UTutu gade anendlela ezintathu ekhabe aphatha ngazo imilandu ebekwa phambi kwakhe. Okubalwa hlangana ukobana:

Abantu ababekwe imilandu gade baveza ngokuzeleko nanyana ngokusepepeneni: izinto abazenzako.
Abantu ababekwe umlandu gade babalibalela imilandu yabo bangabajezisi: Okutjho bona gade balitjalelwa imilandwini yabo.
Abantu ababekwe umlandu gade babuyisana nalobo ababonileko.

Iindabezi zokutlhoriswa kwabantu namalungelo wabo zamthinda khulu uTutu wabhalelwa nakuzibamba.

Lokha iindaba zemiguruguru kanye nokutlhoriswa kwabantu, batlhoriswa yihlangano ye-ANC zivela, ihlangano le yasaba bona isithunzi sayo sizokuwa. Yafuna ukulungisa ezinye iincenye zombiko wokugcina we-TRC ukwenzela ukobana banciphise umonakalo, kodwana uTutu akhange akuvumele lokho. Wabayelelisa ngokutlhoriswa kwamandla wathi, njengobana kwenzeka kwezinye iinarha emlandoni woke, urhulumende omutjha nawo usengatjhuguluka lula ugandelele abantu ufane norhulumende wakade.

Ngonyaka ka-1996 wathatha umhlalaphasi emsebenzinakhe wokuba ngu-Archbishop weKapa ukwenzela bona abeke phambili umsebenzakhe we-TRC begodu ngonyaka ka-1998 wathula iripoti ebizwa bona yi-TRC’s five-volume report kuNelson Mandela emnyanyeni okhabe usePitori. Wabona imitjhapho ye-TRC kodwana wagcina athabile ngomsebenzayo.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana