Intlalo Yoluntu Yohlanga lwa Basotho

© Dr Peter Magubane

Iyantlukwano Ngeziduko Namakomkhulu

Uhlanga lwa Basotho baka Moshoeshoe lwalukade lumanyene ngokwezithethe kunye nangeze politiki. Kodwa ke, iyantlukwano ngokweziduko kunye nokuzalana yayibonakala kwilixa lokwakhiwa kwesi sizwe kwaye isaqhubeka nanamhlanje. Ukwahlulwa hlulwa ngokwezithili, iiwadi kunye nangee lali kwendlela yase Britani, kusasetyenziswa nanamhlanje, kwilizwe lase Lesotho kuphela. Bonke abantu bohlanga lwaBasotho baneziduko ezibayamanisa nesilo esithile okanye isinyanya. Umntu kufuneka asebenzise isiduko sika tata wakhe. Oomama abangatshatanga baye babanike iziduko zabo abantwana babo ngaphandle kokuba utata womntwana uhlawule waze wamvuma ngokuse sikweni umntwana ukuba ngowakhe.

Ilali yaBasotho

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngokwe mbali yakudala yaBasotho, abantu baphuma emgxobhozweni okwi ndawo ebizwa nge Ntsuanatsatsi (neyindawo eyimbali kuphela). Ngokwale mbali ke aba bantu bawushiya lo mgxobhozo ngokwa maqela nawathi aba ziziduko (liboko). Isiduko ngasinye sanikwa isilwanyana njenge sithixo esiza kukhusela abantu abaphantsi kwaso. Isilwanyana sesiduko sika Moshoeshoe, umzekelo, yaba ngu xam (koena). Ezi zilo zazi xabisekile, zinikwa isidima se sithixo (molimo) kwaye kufuneka zihlonitshwe kwaye zoyikwe. Onke amalungu kwakufuneka athobele imithetho okanye izithethe ezihambelana nesilwanyana okanye lonto ithile ihambelana neziduko zabo kufuneka ihlonitshiwe. Ilali (motse) yayi sisi seko solawulo loluntu.

Inani labantu abahlala kwilali nganye lalishiyana, mhlawumbi libe phakathi kwekhulu ukuya kuma khulu amaninzi. Uninzi lwabahlali abadala abanga madoda babehlobene ngootata. Kodwa amadoda eziduko ezahlukeneyo ayehlala kwilali enye (motse). Kumaxesha amandulo iindawo zokuhlala zazakhiwe ngodaka oluqiniswe ngengca. Olu daka lwalu tyatyekwa phezu kwamakhuni. Malunga nekhulu leminyaka eyadlulayo, ngenxa yegalelo labefundisi base Ngilani, izindlu zengca ezenziwe ngamatye zaya zixhaphaka. Zaziba zizangqa okanye zibe nekona ezine. Indlu nganye yayiba negumbi elinye okanye ngaphezulu. Apho amatye ayengekho khona, izindlu zazisenziwa ngezitena zodaka, zize zihonjiswe ngamatye amancinci ahlohle emadongeni, okanye zihonjiswe ngee phatheni ezine migca ngodaka.

Namhlanje aBasotho abaninzi bokha izindlu ezinamacala amane kunye nophahla lwamazinku. Izindlu ezakhiwe ngamazinki kuphela zifumaneka kwiidolophu eziphuhlayo zase Lesotho kunye nakwiphondo le Free State. Iilali ezininzi zohlanga lwaBasotho zazinomtsalane, zihambelana nendawo ezikuyo. Zakhelwe phezu kweenduli, kuze iindawo ezise mazantsi zisetyenziselwe ezolimo. Iinzame zokudibanisa iindawo zokuhlala ngeminyaka yocinezelo ngeyoo 1950 kunye noo 1960, zanyanzela abantu base Lesotho ukuba bafudukele kwiilali ezinkulu.

Amakhaya Ase Zilalini

©Dr Peter Magubane
Njenga mandulo, iilali zanamhlanje zinamakhaya. Ikhaya ngalinye lino myeni kunye nomfazi wakhe kunye nabantwana. Kodwa uninzi lwemakhaya lulawulwa ngumama ongatshatanga, onezizukulwana ezinthathu okanye ezine zabantwana. Ukwahluka kobume bamakhaya kule mihla, kuziziphumo zembali yamadoda aya kusebenza emigodini yase Mzantsi Afrika. Mandulo, imizi yayiqulatha oonyana abatshatileyo, abafazi babo kunye nabantwana babo abaselula. Amanye amadoda anabafazi abaninzi ayeye okhe imizi eyahlukeneyo yomfazi ngamnye kunye nabantwana balo mfazi, logama abanye babe sakha izindlu ezininzi emzini omnye omkhulu. Imizi emincinane yayiba nesakhiwo esinye kuphela, kodwa eminye yayiba nendlu, izindlu ezingaphandle, izindlu zokugcina iimpahla ze kubekho nooronta bokuphekela.

Ezi zindlu ke zazinokubiyelwa ngeengcongolo okanye amadonga ezitena zodaka. Abahlobo kunye nezihlobo babevamise ukuhlalelana kufutshane. Izindlu zabo zazithi zibe sezigingqini zase Lesotho, zohlulwe nje ziigadi phakathi kwazo.

Indlela emi ngayo ilali yayisekelwa kwizinto ezimbalwa, nezazinokuthi zitshintshwe ngokwendlela umnini mzi athande ngayo. Mandulo umzi wenkosi wawusakhiwa embindini welali, kubekho eyomfazi wakhe omdala ecaleni kwayo kube sele kuthi gqa gqa nemizi yabafazi abancinci ngokulandelelana kwabo. Inkundla (lekhotla) yayiba phambi komzi wakhe ze ecaleni kwayo kubekho ubuhlanti beenkomo kunye nesitali samahashe.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana