Umphakathi we-Basotho

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukuhlukaniswa Kosiko Lozalo

Ngesinye izinga iBasotho yaBoshoeshoe yayinobumbano bezomnotho nezombusazwe. Kodwa ukuhlukana kwemikhakha, ngokusekelwe ebuhlotsheni nasebudlelwaneni, kwabonakala esikhathini sokwakha isizwe futhi kuqhubeka nanamuhla. Ukuhlukana kweziphathimandla (izifunda, izifundazwe, amagceke namadolobhana), ezisetshenziselwa futhi ziqiniswe ukuphathwa kweBrithani yaseBasutoland, futhi ziphikelela, kuphela eLesotho. Yonke i-Basotho ivela emndenini, isigaba somphakathi amalungu awo abelana negama lenkampani elibahlanganisa ne-totem noma ukhokho. I-association i-patrilineal, umuntu ngamunye ophethe igama lomndeni kayise, umkhulu kayise, njll. Omama abangashadile banikeza ingane yabo amagama omndeni ngaphandle uma ubaba evuma ukuthi ubaba.

Ikhaya la-Basotho

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngokombiko we-Basotho, abantu baqala ukuvela emanzini endaweni ethiwa yiNtsuanatsatsi. Bashiya amaxhaphozi ngamaqembu abe amaqembu (i-liboko), ngayinye yawo eyanikezwa isilwane njengomlondolozi wkulunkulu. Isigqoko somndeni wakwaMoshoeshoe, isibonelo, kwakuyi ingwenya (koena). Ama-Totems ayengcwele, anikezwe ikhwalithi ye-molimo (unkulunkulu noma ongabonakali), futhi kwakudingeka ahlonishwe futhi asatshwe. Wonke amalungu kufanele agcine amathebhu nezinye izinto ezisetshenziswayo mayelana nesilwane noma into ehloniphekile. Umzana (umuzi) wawuyunithi eyisisekelo yokulawula. Inani labakhileyo edolobheni lahlukahluka kusuka kumaphuzu kuya kwamakhulu amaningi. Abaningi besakhamuzi abesilisa abadala babehlotshaniswa eceleni komndeni wabo, kodwa amadoda asezinhlobonhlobo ezehlukene ayevame ukuhlala edolobheni elilodwa. Esikhathini esidlule, izindlu zakhiwe ngodaka oluqiniswa ngotshani, lubekwe phezu kohlaka lwamapulangwe. Cishe ngekhulu leminyaka edlule, ngethonya lezithunywa zevangeli, izindlu ezakhiwe ngamatje agqoke zathandwa kakhulu. Babeyinkimbinkimbi noma i-mctangular, nekamelo elilodwa noma eziningana. Lapho kwakungatholakali khona amatshe, izindlu zenziwe ngamadaka, futhi zihlotshaniswa ngamatshe amancane anamathele ezindongeni, noma afakwe emigqeni odakeni.

Namuhla abaningi baseBasotho bakha izindlu ezinezimpondo ezinezintambo zensimbi ezinamathele. Izindlu ezakhiwe ngokuphelele ngensimbi enonakele zitholakala emadolobheni ahlukumezayo aseLesotho naseFree State. Amadolobhana amaningi aseBasotho ayemnandi, ahlangene kahle nemvelo. Ukubeka emasimini aphakanyisiwe kanye nokukhuphuka, bashiya izivande ezivundile kanye neziqhingi zokulima. Imizamo yokuhlala ezindaweni zokuhlala emakoloni angama-1950 kanye nama-60s yaphoqelela abantu baseLesotho emadolobheni amakhulu.

Imizi Yasemakhaya

©Dr Peter Magubane
Njengakudala, amadolobhana namuhla anemizi. Ngokuvamile ngamunye unomyeni nomkakhe nezingane, kodwa eziningi ziholwa unina ongashadile, ezinezizukulwane ezintathu noma ezine zezingane. Ukuhlukahluka okukhulu emakhaya namuhla kungabhekiswa emlandweni wamadoda njengezisebenzi ezifudukayo ezimbonini zaseNingizimu Afrika. Ngaphambili, izindlu zazihlanganisa namadodana ashadile, omkawo kanye nezingane ezincane. Amanye amadoda ayenamakhosikazi amaningi ayehlala nomunye umkami nabantwana bakhe, kanti abanye babenemizi ehlukene ngaphakathi kwendlu eyodwa. Izindlu ezincane zinezakhiwo ezilodwa kuphela, kodwa ezinye zinezindlu, izindlu zokugcina, izindawo zokugcina kanye nezindlu zokupheka. Lezi zingase zixhunywe ngodonga lomhlanga noma izindonga zodaka. Abangane nezihlobo eziseduze bavame ukuhlala eduze komunye nomunye, izindawo zabo zokuhlala zithandana noma, ikakhulukazi eziqhingini zaseLesotho, zinezivande ezihlukanisiwe.

Ukuhlelwa kwendawo yasemaphandleni kwakusekelwe ezimisweni ezimbalwa eziyisisekelo, ezingahle zishintshwe ngokuvumelana nokuzikhethela komuntu siqu kanye nezidingo zezolimo. Esikhathini esedlule, indawo yokuhlala yangasese yesikhulu yayiphakathi nendawo yomndeni oyinhloko, yowesifazane wakhe oyinhloko eduze kwayo, kanye nalabo besifazane abancane abahlelekile ngokulandelana kwabo. Inkantolo (lekhotla) yayingaphambi komuzi wayo futhi eceleni kwayo yayiyizinkomo nezinsika.

Translated by Nsika Khoza