Litiko le Mmango weBasotho

© Dr Peter Magubane

Kuhlukana kwe Masiko eSive

Ngakusinye sigaba iBasotho ya Moshoeshoe yayinemasiko futsi yayihlangene ngetepolitiki. Kepha ke kuhlukana kwemasiko, lobekubhekiswe ngesive-kanye nebuhlobo, kwaba lizibithi ekwakhekeni kabi-kwesive lenanyalo kusachubeka. Kuhlukana kwemahhovisi (tigodzi, tigodzi letincane, emawadi kanye nesemakhayeni), lokwasetjentiswa kwaphindze kwangenelwa mahhovisi ema British ase Basutoland, lokusachubeka, eLesotho kuphela. Bonkhe Basotho bacondzene nemacembu emindeni, licembu lemmango lapho khona emalunga aneligama lelifanako lelibahlanganisako kanye nesilwane noma nemadloti/labaphansi. Kuhlangana buhlobo, munye umuntfu lotfwele ligama lelicembu lababe wakhe, mkhulu wakhe, nalokunye. Besifazane labangakashadi banika emagama emacembu abo kubantfwana babo ngaphandle nangabe lobabe avuma bantfwana.

Emakhaya eBasotho

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngekuya kwalabadzala beBasotho, bantfu bacala baphuma emhlabatsini lomanti endzaweni lengatiwa lebitwa nge Ntsuanatsatsi. Bashiya lomhlaba ngemacembu laba tive (liboko), linye lato lakhetsa silwane njengankulunkulu-lovikelako. iTotem yesive sa Moshoeshoe, njengekutsi, kwakuyingwenya (koena). Lama totem abehlonishwa, acutsaniswa ngelizinga le molimo (nkulunkulu noma intfo lengabonwa), futsi kwakumele yesatjwe. Onkhe emalunga kwakufuneka agadze imifanekiso kanye naletinye tintfo leticondzene naletilwane noma tintfo letihlonishwako. Lamakhaya (motse) kwakutindzawo temahhovisi ekugadza. Inombolo yetindzawo tase motse yayehluka kusuka kuleningi kuya kumakhulu lamaningi. Liningi letindlu talabadzala labadvuna betihambisana ngelilayini letibongo, kepha emadvodza emacembu lahlukile bekavame kuhlala ku motse yinye. Ngetikhatsi tekucala, tindlu tatakhiwa ngeludzaka bese kufakwa tjani, kuplasitelwe ngemsebenti wetihlahla letincane. Ngesikhatsi sakadzeni, ngemfutfo wemamishini, tindlu tetjani letatigcokiswa ngematje taba yintfo leyatiwako. Betibasandingilizi noma sasikwele lesidze, neligumbi linye noma lamaningana. Lapho khona ematje bekakadze angatfolakali, tindlu betakhiwa ngetitina telidzaka, besetihlotjiswa ngematje lamancane labeka fakwa edvongeni, noma kwentiwe ngemalayini kuloludzaka.

Namuhla Basotho labaningi bakha tindlu letimise kwesikwele ngemathayela lapatalele etinsimbi njengeluphahla. Tindlu letakhiwe ngemathayela tonkhe betitfolwa emadolobheni ase Lesotho nase Free State. Emakhaya lamaningi eBasotho lendzala bekasitfombe lesihle, lesingenela kahle nalendzawo. Lebekubekwe endzaweni yekuphuma nekushona kwelilanga, bashiya tindzawo lebetilungele kuhlanyelwa kanye netindzawo letiphansi tekulima. Imifutfo yekubekela emakhaya ngendlela yemakholonisi emnyaka wa 1950 na 60 lokwaphocelela bantfu base Lesotho kutsi baye etindzaweni letinkhulu.

Emakhayeni Lanetindlu

©Dr Peter Magubane
Njengaphambilini, tindzawo tasemakhayeni tifaka tindlu tekuhlala. Injalo nje ngayinye inendvodza kanye nemfati nebantfwana, kepha letiningi tato tiholwa bomake labangakashadi, labanebantfwana labatsatfu kuya kulabane netitukulwane talabantfwana. Intfo lenkhulu lebanti namuhla emakhaya kungaba ngumlandvo walowesilisa njengoba batisebenti tekuhamba emayini yase Ningizimu Afrika. Phambilini, emakhaya bekafaka bantfwana bebafana labashadile, nebafati babo kanye nebantfwana babo labancane. Lamanye emadvodza lanebafati labaningi (sitsembu) bekanemakhaya emfati ngamunye kanye nebantfwabakhe, abe lamanye anetindlu letehlukene endzaweni yinye/ekhayeni linye. Emakhaya lamancane bekaba nesakhiwo sinye, kepha lamanye bekanetindlu, letincane, tindlu tekugcinela kanye netindlu taboguca tekuphekela. Loku bekungahlanganiswa ngafenisi wemhlanga noma ludvonga lweludzaka. Tihlobo kanye nebangani labadvutane bebavame kuhlala dvutane nalomunye, tindlu tabo lebetichubeka noma, tisetindzaweni letiphansi tase Lesotho, netingadze letivalelekile lebetihlukanisa.

Lokwakheka kwaletindzawo tasemakhayeni kwakubekwe ngetindlela letimbalwa, lekungaba kutfutfukisa ngekuya kwesincumo samunye kantsi nekufunwa kwekuphucula. Ngaphambilini, indlu lefihlekile yesikhulu kwakusemkhatsini wemakhaya langiwo, lelapho umkakhe lomdzala abeseceleni kwayo, bese labo labancane bafati bebasendzaweni lehleleke kabi ngebudzala lobebubagegeletele. Indlu yemacala (lekhotla) yayiphambi kwendlu yesikhulu bese eceleni kwayo ngulapho kunesibaya setinkhomo nendzawo yekugcina emahhashi.

Translated by Phindile Malotana