Inkcazelo nge Ngwe

©Shem Compion
Igama lengwe lesiNgesi elithi leopard (Panthera Pardus) licatshulwe kuma gama esiGrike athetha ingonyama kunye ne panther, ngenxa yenkolelo yakudala yokuba ingwe yingonyama edibene ne panther. Ingwe ichazwa njengesona silo singabambekiyo kwizilo ezitya inyama.

Ingwe yase Afrika ziyashiyana ngobukhulu nangombala, kuxhomekeka kwindawo ezikuyo nendawo ezihlala kuyo. Ngokubhalwe kwi South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), umbala wayo ubaphakathi kuka tyheli ongacacanga ukuya ko golide, kunye nemibala emnyama.

Ingwe zase Koloni ezikwintaba ezingase lunxwemeni lwase Ntshona Koloni, zincinane kunezo zezinye iindawo kweli lizwe. Iinkunzi zinobunzima obumalunga nama 31 kg zona iimazi zinobunzima obumalunga nama 21kg. iinkunzi ezise Kruger National Park, zisenokuba nobunzima obumalunga nama 58 kg, logama iimazi zona zinobunzima obungama 37.5 kg.

Nangona kunjalo imida yamakhaya engwe zase Koloni mikhulu ngenxa yokunqaba kokutya. Le mida ibaphakathi kwama 200 km² kunye ne 1 000 km², xa kuthelekiswa nezo zihlala e Kruger National Park, zona zihlala kwimida ephakathi kwama 25 km² ukuya kuma 50 km².

Apho amahlosi anamachokoza azimeleyo, ingwe zona zina zangqa zamachokoza abizwa ngokuba zii rosettes kwimizimba yazo, kunye nama chokoza amnyama adibeneyo emilenzeni, emacaleni kunye nase milenzeni yangasemva. Zinamachokoza amaninzi kwaye azinamigca ebusweni ngenga mahlosi.

Zikholwa kukuhlala kwiindawo ezinamahlathi aluhlobo lwe koppies kunye ne riparian azidibenanga nokuhlala kwiindawo ezinengca. Ngokubhalwe kwi SANBI, iikoppies zivamise ukukhethwa njenge ndawo zokuhlala amantshontsho. Ikwazizo neendawo zokugacela amaxhoba. Nangona ezi zilo ziqala ukukhwelana xa zimalunga neenyanga ezingama 24, zivamise ukuqala ukuzala xa zineminyaka emithathu. Amantshontsho amabini ukuya kwamathathu ayazalwa ngexesha. Iimazi zimitha isithuba seentsuku ezili 100 kuphela.

Amantshontsho azalwa, aze afihlwe ematyholweni ashinyeneyo. Aba ethe ethe kakhulu kunyaka wokuqala wobomi bawo, ingakumbi ukuba ahlala kwindawo apho enokutya okunqongopheleyo. Ngokubhalwe ngabe SANBI, ukubhubha kwamantshontsho kuphakathi kwama 35% kunye nama 90%, kuxhomekeka kwindawo ahlala kuyo. Iimazi ziyazikhulisela amantshontsho azo ngaphandle kokuncediswa. Amantshontsho avamise ukushiya oonina xa emalunga neenyanga ezili 15 ubudala.

Indlela yoKutya neyoKubulala

©Roger de la Harpe
Ingwe zizilo ezibonakala kakhulu ebusuku, kodwwa zisenokusebenza nakwii yure zokuqala zentsasa xa kungekho ziphazamiso. Ukutya kwazo kuphakathi kwezinambuzane ezincinci ukuya kwizilwanyana ezinamanqina amane kunye nezinye izilwanyana ezitya inyama. Zikholwa kakhulu lixhoma elinobunzima obuli 10 kg ukuya kuma 40 kg. Inani le Caracal kunye neloo dyakalashe livamise ukwehla kwiindawo apho kufuneka zikhuphisane nengwe ngokutya.

Ngokubhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual, ingwe iyitya imfuyo kuphela ukuba ezinye indlela zokufumana ukutya zinqabile. Zaziwa ngokubulala umlinganiselo ongaphaya kokutya ezikudingayo. Noxa kunjalo zitya ixhoba libe linye ngexesha. Zinkulu kwaye zinamandla ukodlula amahlosi, ngoko ke azilileqi ixhoba lazo kodwa ziyalichwechwela zize zilixhumele. Ixhoba lufuthaniselwa ngokulunywa entanyeni okanye emqaleni, emva koko lirhuqelwe apho ingwe inokulityela ekhusini. Ingwe ingatyela ixhoba lalo phantsi kwe tyholo elishinyeneyo, phakathi kwamatye okanye phezulu emthini. Kushiyeka imizila yokurhuqwa, apho belirhuqwa khona ixhoba.

Imikrwelo yeenzipho isenokubonwa kwizihlunu zangemva okanye emagxeni wesilwanyana esikhulu sasekhaya, logama intamo yexhoba elincinane linokuphulwa. Ngokubhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual, uboya obuninzi buyaxhwithwa, kwaye ingwe iqala ukutya inyama engaphakathi kwimilenze yangasemva. Iye itye malunga ne 1 kg ukuya kwi 2 kg yenyama. Azifane ziwakhuphe amathumbu.

Ulawulo

©Shem Compion
Iingwe zizilo ezikhuselweyo eNtshona Koloni, ngamagosa ezolondolozo lwezilwanyana kuphela avumelekileyo ukuthiya imigibe. Kwamanye amaphondo, amafama asenokufuna iimpepha mvume zokuthiya imigibe kwaye kufuneka aqhakamshelane nabasemagunyeni ezolondolozo lwezilwanyana ukuze bafudusele ezi zilo kwenye indawo xa sele zibanjiselwe.

Izinja ezigada iigusha ezibizwa nge Anatolian kunye needonki zibaluncedo kakhulu ekuncediseni ukukhusela imfuyo ekuhlaselweni zingwe. Ezi zinja kunye needonki kufanele zibe kanti zikhuliswa nemfuyo ukuze zikwazi ukuyikhusela ngendlela efanelekileyo. Ukubiyela nokwenza uthango, nako kuyanceda ekukhuseleni imfuyo.

Imithombo yeeNkcukacha

Le nkcukacha ithatyathwe kwi:

The Predation Management Manual compiled by the Predation Management Forum and Western Cape Department of Agriculture.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana