Ukutlhadlhulwa kweMngwemabaia-Leopard

©Shem Compion
Ibizo le-Leopard (Panthera Pardus) livela ebizweni lesi-Greek elitjho kobana ibhubezi ne-panther ngombana kade gade kukholelwa bona izingwemabala bekuslwane lapha kuhlangene khona ibhubezi kanye ne-panther. Ingwemabala itlhadlhulwa njengesinye islwane esidla inyama.

Ingwemabala ye-Africa iyadlulana ngobukhulu kanye nangombala okuya ngokobana ihlalaphi nendawo ehlala kiyo. Ngokuya ngokwe-South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI), umbala wayo usuka kosarulana okukhanyako uye kosarhawuda okungeneleleko, ube namatjhatjhazi anzima abangwa masotja.

Izingwemabala zeKapa ezisentabeni zetlhagwini zesifunda se-Western Cape zincani kunalezo ezitholakala enarheni le yoke, lokha eziduna zinobudisi obuyi-31 kg, ezisikazi zinobudisi obuyi-21 kg. Eziduna ezise-Kruger National Park, zinobudisi obuyi-58 kg, lokha ezisikazi zinobudisi obuyi-37.5 kg.

Nanyana kunjalo, ingwemabala yeKapa yikulu ngebanga lokobana kunokudla okunengi esifundenesi ekuthola enarheni ehlangana kwe-200 km² kanye ne-1 00 km². Lokha nakumadaniswa naleyo esesiqiwini senyamazane i-Kruger National Park, esenarheni ehlangana kwe-25 km² ukuya ku-50 km².

Lapha ingwemabala–cheetah inamatjhatjhazi ahlukeneko, ingwemabala yomhlobo we-leopard inamaringhi aziwa ngokobana yi-rosettes emzimbenayo kanye namatjhatjhazi anzima eenyaweni, ehloko, nemahlangothini wenyawo zangemva. Amatjhatjhazi wakhona manengi begodu ayinawo amalayini anzima esebusweni njenge-cheetah.

Zithanda amahlathi womhlobo we-koppies kanye ne-riparian begodu azithandi lapha kunotjani khulu. Ngokuya ngokwe-SANBI, i-koppies ivamise ukuyikhetha njengendawo lapha izokuhlalisa khona abentwabayo nalapha izokurhona ukuzuma ezinye iimbandana khona. Izingwemabalezi zilungela ukuya emsemeni lokha nazinenyanga eziyi-24, zivamise ukubeletha lokha nazineminyaka emithathu. Zibeletha abentwana ababili ukuya kwabathathu, ngemva kokuzithwala amalanga ayi-100.

Abentwabazo babelethwa babafihle etjanini obukhulu. Abentwanaba babuthakathaka khulu eminyakeni yokuthoma yepilo yabo,khulukhulu lokha nabahlala enarheni lapha ukudla kungekho khona kuhle. Ngokuya ngokwe-SANBI, ukufa kwabentwanaba kuhlangana kwe-35% kanye ne-90% okuya ngokobana bahlalaphi. Ezisikazi zikhulisa abentwana ngaphandle kokuthola irhelebho. Abentwanabo bavamise ukutjhiya abonina lokha nabanenyanga eziyi-15 zobudala.

Indlela Yokubulala Nokudla

©Roger de la Harpe
Izingwemabala zilwane ezimajadu ebusuku, kodwana ziyabamajadu nekuseni khulu lokha nazingaphaanyiswako. Ukudla kwazo kusukela enunwaneni ezincani kuye embandaneni ezimunyisako kanye nalezo ezidla inyama, kodwana zithanda ukuzuma iimbandana ezizumako ezinobudisi obuhlangana kwe-10 kg ukuya ku-4 kg. I-caracal kanye nabojakalasi bavamie ukuya enarheni lapha ziphalisana khona ngokudla.

Ngokuya ngokwe-Predation Management Manual, izingwemabala zivamise ukuzuma ifuyo, enarheni lapha imbandana zomango zingasi zinengi khona. Zivamise ukubulala ifuyo enengi kunale eziyitlhogako, kodwana zidle yinye kwaphela. Zibudisi begodu ziqinile njenge-cheetah, njeke azigijimisi ungazimbi wazo kodwana zimbamba zimhlasele. Ungazimbi wazo zimrhama zimlume intamo nanyana uqhoqhoqho bese zimdosela lapha zizomudla khona ziphephile, ukwenza Isibonelo, ngaphasi kotjani obukhulu obuhlangeneko, hlangana namatje nanyana phezulu emthini. Amatjhwayo wesilwane esidosiweko azokubonakala.

Amatjhwayo wenzipho ezokubonakala emahlombe wefuyo ekulu, lokha nayiyincani intambo yefuyo leyo izokutholakala iphukile. Ngokuya ngokwe-Predation Management Manual, ziqutha uboya obunengi, lapha ingwemabala ivamisa kobana idle kusukela enyaweni langemva begodu idle inyama engaba yi-1 kg ukuya ku-2 kg. Azikavamisi ukususa amathumbu.

Ukuzitlhogomela

©Shem Compion
Izingwemabala zinlwane ezivikelweko begodu esifundeni se-Western Cape, basebenzi bemnyangweni wokutlhogonyelwa kwezemvelo kwaphela abavunyelwe ukubeka amakheji anenthiyo zawo. Kwezinye iimfunda, abafuyi banga aplayela imvume yokobana babeke amakheji anenthiyo lezo begodu kutlhogeka kobana bathinte bemnyangweni wokutlhogonyelwa kwezemvelo nange bafuna ukuyifudusa ngemva kokobana bayibambe.

Izinja zezimvu zomhlobo we-Anatolian kanye nendoki ziyarhelebha ekukhandeleni ingwemabala kobana idle ifuyo, kodwana izinja kanye nendonki zitlhoga kobana zikhuliswe nayo ifuyo leyo kobana ziyivikele. Ukufaka ifensi, ukuvalela ifuywakho nakho kungarhelebha.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana