Xana ndzi Lava yini Kusungula Kuhlayisa Tinyoxi?

Ku Dyondza hi Takuhlayisa Tinyoxi

©The Animal and Plant Health Agency, Crown Copyright
Vafuwi va tinyoxi votala valanguta minkandziyiso eka YouTube, kambe minkandziyiso leyi yitekiwe eka matiko yo fana na USA na Europe. Mabaku ya tinyoxi xa hambanile nyana nay a matiko lawaya; tinyoxi talaha tikweni tina nkanu swinene naswona ta luma laha kungana swita ndzhaku swa xiyimo xale henhla loko uri na allergy ya tinyoxi kuvula ka Shirley Downie wa Beeware. Lero swahlohleteriwa leswaku uya eka tidyondzo ta vuleteri byo hlayisa tinyoxi kumbe u endla vulavisisi byikulu eka vahlayisi lava vanga humelela kumbe valeteri.

Dyondza swotala hiku hlayisa tinyoxi hiku hlaya kumbe kuya ndyondza hiku hlayisa tinyoxi. Ku tirha na muleteri wakahle swita tlhela swiku dyondzisa tindlela ta ntiyiso to hlayisa tinyoxi. eAfrika Dzonga, ‘The Blue Book’ (“Beekeeping in South Africa” by Johannesmeier et.al.) yi tekiwa tani hi buku ya kahle swinene eka kuhlayisa tinyoxi.

Tinhloko mhaka eka tidyondzo taku hlayisa tinyoxi tikatsa theory ya tinyoxi, laha titshamaka kona, vulawuro bya mabaku, ku lumula ka queen xikan’we na kuhakuriwa ka vulombe. Tidyondzo leti tita tlhela ti hlamusela hilaha unga hlawulaka hakona xikan’we na kuendla baku; langutisisa switirhisiwa leswi lavekaka ku hlayisa tinyoxi leswi lavekaka; ndlela yo hlengeleta naku humelerisaka vulombe xikan’we naku famba famba naku khoma mintlawa.

Loko kuriku kuya nghena e klasini ya khoso leyi kumbe hi siku ra vuxokoxoko, ringeta kuva u kuma muleteri kufana na loyi anga tokota swinene eka ku hlayisa tinyoxi loyi anga tiyimisela ku avelana hi vutivi bya kwe.

Laha unga Vekaka Baku ra Tinyoxi?

©Marinda Louw
Loko u tshama e dorobeni, vutisa eka masipala loko kuriku swipfumeleriwile kuva u hlayisa tinyoxi eka tindzhawu leti tale madorobeni. Loko swiritano, veka mabaku kwalomu ka 50 m kusuka laha kungana swiharhi na vanhu. Eka tindzhawu tale makaya, veka mabaku ekule swinene na tihuku na tihanci, tinyoxi ati tsakeli nuhelo wa swifuwo leswi.

Ndzhawu leyi tinyoxi tivekiwaka kona yivuriwa apiary. Apiary yifanele ku fikelelekae, iy tumbeteka, yi oma naswona yiva na dyambu kambe ayina xiphiqo xa gwitsi. Yifanele kuva yikota ku tisa swakudya na mati eka tinyoxi ta vulombe laha kungariku kule na 3 - 5 km kusuka e bakwini.

Hambi leswi tindzhawu tin’wani tingavaka na swakudya sworinganela eka mintlawa ya tinyoxi, swingava swinga koteki ku phamela swakudya kuringana nguva hinkwayo. Leswivulaka leswaku, swingava na nkoka ku susa mintlawa kuya eka tindzhawu letinga lulamela tingana swibyariwa loko swihumese mabilomu. Leswi swingava migingiriko leyi hakeleriwaka ya pollination eka van’wamapurasi leswingatava swiengeteleriwile hi mbuyelo wa vulombe eka muhlayisi wa tinyoxi.

Kombela mpfumelelo minkarhi hinkwayo eka n’winyi wa ndzhawu loko unga se vekela baku ra tinyoxi eka misava yayena.

Va South African Bee Industry Organisation (SABIO) vayimela vahlayisi vatinyoxi e Afrika Dzonga naswona va tsundzuxa leswaku vahlayisi va tinyoxi vatsarisa mabaku ya vona nava Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF).

Laha unga Kumaka baku ra Tinyoxi na Ntlawa

©Marinda Louw
Ku sungula kuhlayisa tinyoxi uta lava ntlawa wa tinyoxi xikan’we na baku ku tihlayisela kona. Kuna tindlela totala taku kuma ntlawa wa tinyoxi:

Unga xava ntlawa wa tinyoxi kusuka eka muhlayisi loyi anga humelela.
Unga tikhomela ntlawa wa wena wa tinyoxi (a wild or trek swarm). Nkarhi wa kahle wo khoma tinyoxi i nkarhi wa ximun’wana.
Unga rhurhisa ntlawa lowu hanyaka kuya eka baku. Hambiswiritano, leswi swilava ntokoto.
Unga koka rinoko ra tinyoxi hikuva u chukuchela vulombe eka tshaku ra baku ra tinyoxi, hiku tirhisa maendlelo ya vuxavisi laha unga chukuchelaka lemongrass eka tshaku ra baku.

Tinyoxi tingahanya eka tindzhawu totala tofana na mabaku, timbhovo emisinyeni kumbe endzeni ka mabokisi ya mapulangi. Ku rhurhela ntlawa wa tinyoxi uta fanela ku tirhisa baku. Baku leri ringa xaviwa kusuka eka khamphani leyi xavisaka switirhisiwa swa tinyoxi.

Kuna maxavisi vantsongo lava tivekaka kambe munhu u fanele kuva na vurhonwani eka vaxavisi tani hileswi mabaku yan’wani yanga fikeleriki swipimelo. Leswinga chipa aswitalangi kuva swiri leswinga swinene. Minkarhi yin’wana, vahlayisi va tinyoxi vaxavisa mabaku lawa avaya tirhisa, kambe yafanele ku fafazeriwa leswaku tinyoxi tinga tluleriwi hi mavabyi. Mabaku lawa yanga tshama ya tirhisiwa yanga tirhisiwa ku khoma ntlawa wa tinyoxi.

Switirhisiwa swo Hlayisa Tinyoxi

©Chris Daly
Tani hi vuhungasi byinwana na byinwana kumbe ntirho wunwan, u fanele kuva na switirhisiwa leswinga fanela kuva u tirha na mintlawa ya tinyoxi. Loko mabaku lawa yanga hlayisiwi kahle, ntlawa wa tinyoxi wuta lan’wa wu famba kutani wuya lava ndzhawu leyi hlayisekeke kuya tshama kona.

Swa hlohleteriwa leswaku u xava hovhorolo leyipfalekaka hinkwako (zip-up overall) xikan’we na veilkusirhelela xikandza na nhamu leswaku unga lumiwi hi tinyoxi. Xin’wana lexi lavekaka i ti gloves ta PVC kumbe ta dzovo, gaiters kuva uti sirhelela laha kuya emikondzweni na mabutsu. Tani hi swiambalo swintshwa swa vahlayisi va tinyoxi, uta lava smoker, xitirhisiwa xa baku na burachi ya tinyoxi. Endzhaku nyana, loko u hakula vulombe, kuta laveka switirhisiwa swo hakula hiswona.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni