Ku Phameriwa ka Tinyoxi ta Vulombe

© Magnus Manske
Tinyoxi ta vulombe tilava swakudya leswaku ti kota ku hanya xikan’we naku humelerisa vulombe. Tilava swakudya swofana nati carbohydrates (chukele eka swihlenge kumbe vulombe), ti amino acids (protein kusuka eka pollen),ti lipids (fatty acids, sterols), ti vitamins, ti minerals (munyu) na water.

Tinyoxi ta vulombe ti lava swakudya leswinga fuwa hi swakudya swohambana hambana leswi tisaka pollen leswaku tita kota ku endla ti enzymes to hambana hambana. Ti enzymes leti tina nkoka eka kususa swilo leswinga lavekeki emirini wa tona kufana na swidlaya switsotswana na mavabyi kutani ti tiya miri xikan’we naku kondzelela eka mavabyi. Hi xitalo loko miri wunga tiyangi, leswi endlaka leswaku tinga kumi swakudya kahle xikan’we na ndla la hiswona leswi endlaka leswaku tinyoxi ti fa.

Tinyoxi to tiya leti phameriwaka kahle titala ku pona eka dyandza na xixika naswona tikurisa tinyoxi totala letintsongo kutlula letinga kumangiki swakudya swo engetelela.

Nkarhi wo Phamela Tinyoxi

Ku phamela tinyoxi swina nkoka swinene loko ntlawa wa tinyoxi wuri na swakudya swintsongo leswi hlayisiweke naswona kungari na swakudya sworinganela swa ntumbuluko laha tinga kona. E Afrika Dzonga, kuna ntsena kwalomu ka 12% wa misava leyinga tirhisiwaka ku byala swimilani swofana na misinya ya mihandzu, loko swakudya swantumbuluko swa tinyoxi swotani hi misinya ya fynbos e Western Cape nayona yikalaka swinene. Swakudya swa ntumbuluko switlhela swihungutiwa hi dyandza na mindzilo leyi hisaka nhova.

Vulombe endzeni ka baku byi tisa swakudya eka tinyoxi eka tinhweti ta xixika xikan’we na minkarhi leyi ku pfumalekaka swimilani leswingana mabilomu lawa yanga fuwa hi nectar. Hinkarhi wa dyandza loko nectar yinga kumeki, tinyoxi titirhisa nhlayiso wa vulombe e bakwini kuva titi hanyisa. Hi xitalo swakudya swo engetelela swa tinyoxi swalaveka endzhaku ka kuhakuriwa vulombe.

Leswi swina nkoka leswaku muhlayisi wa tinyoxi a tshama arikarhi aya e bakwini ku languta nhlayo ya vulombe leswaku ata kota ku pima loko mphakelo wa swakudya swo engetelela wu laveka kumbe loko mabaku ya lava kususiwa kuva yayisiwa laha kunga tala swakudya swa ntumbuluko.

Mphakelo wa swakudya swo engetela wutala ku endliwa loko kungaseva na ntshikelelo wa tinyoxi kufana nakuva ku hakuriwa vulombe, kususiwa ka baku leswaku kutaya endliwa migingiriko ya pollination kumbe ku hungutiwa hi lexikarhi ka ntlawa wa tinyoxi.

Swakudya swo engetelela swinga antswisa ntlawa xikan’we na kuhanya kahle ka nyoxi ya queen.

Leswi Phameriwaka Tinyoxi ta Vulombe?

©Syrio
Tinyoxi ti lava ti carbohydrates (chukele) nati protein (pollen).

Ti carbohydrates ti tirhisiwa ku tshamisekisa makufumelelo ya miri wa tinyoxi xikan’we na mahiselo yale ndzeni ka baku ra tinyoxi.

Tinyoxi titlhela ti lava pollen tani hi mphakelo wati protein, ti vitamins, ti minerals na tin’wana ti carbohydrates. Pollen yi tirhisiwa ku endla jelly leyi kunga yona yi phameriwaka nyoxi leyikulu vange i queen xikan’we na letin’wana.

Ku Phameriwa Tinyoxi - Chukele

Unga phameli vulombe eka tinyoxi ehandle kaloko kuriku byi huma eka baku ra tona. Mavabyi ya tinyoxi yotani hi American foulbrood yanga hangalaka hi vulombe byebyo naswona swinga vanga nhlaselo eka baku hinkwaro. Naswona, nuhelo wa vulombe wunga koka rinoko ra tinyoxi leti phangaka kuva tinghena eka baku rero.

Swa antswa u tiphamela chukele ro basa ra ntolovelo kumbe syrup leyi endliweke hi chukele robasa na mati. Unga pfuki u tirhise chukele ringa cheriwanga nchumu, chukele ra buraweni kumbe molasses hikuva leswi swinga chulukisa tinyoxi.

Vahlayisi va tinyoxi vanwana va tsakela nkatsakanyo wa mati na chukele lowunga hi ndlela leyi (a 1:1 dilution) kasi van’wana vatsakela syrup leyinga tiyela nyana ya swiphemu swimbirhi swa chukele na xin’we xa mati (2:1). Mati yokufumela ya pfuneta ku n’okisa chukele, kambe nkatsakanyo wa chukele awu fanelanga wu virisiwa kumbe ku hisiwa hikuva leswi swita endla leswaku chukele ri hundzuka caramel.

Hi ntolovelo, syrup ya 1:1 yita seketela nhlayiso wa vulombe kutani wu nyanyula mintlawa ya tinyoxi kuva ti humesa tinyoxi tintshwa. Syrup leyi yotsindziyela yitirhisiwa kutisa swakudya loko swakudya swiri swintsongo e bakwini. Swa hlohleteriwa kuva u sungula ku phamela kwalomu ka 1 litre ya syrup. Leswi swingava swiringanerile eka masiku nyana.

Veka syrup eka tray yoka yinga entangi ehansi ka xipfalu xa baku kutani u vekela byasi nyana, swirhabyani kumbe maribye leswaku tinyoxi tita fikelela syrup hi ku olova naswona tinga weli endzeni tin’wela.

Kuphameriwa Tinyoxi - Pollen

©JMK
Pollen yi kahle kuva yiphakeriwa hi swimilani leswingana yona kwala kusuhi na baku kambe ku kayivela kungava kona loko kusungula ximun’wana. Tinyoxi ta vulombe titsakela pollen leyingana ti protein taku tlula 25%. Laha ku kumekaka pollen ku katsa sunflower (14%), eucalyptus (20%) na Aloe davyana (28%). Canola pollen nayona yina nhlayo yale henhla yati protein.

Hi minkarhi leyi yikalaka, pollen yinga engeteleriwa hiku tirhisa swiyimela pollen (leswi xavisiwaka kusuka eka vaphakeri va switirhisiwa swa tinyoxi) kumbe pollen ya ntumbuluko. Pollen nayona yinga hangalasa kumbe kuva na mavabyi ya tinyoxi se loko u engetelela hi pollen ya ntumbuluko, kuma ntsena pollen leyi kumekaka kusuka eka ntlawa wo tiya lowungariki na mavabyi.

Dr. Eric C. Mussen, wa The University of California Davis, e USA nayena u hlohletela leswaku kutirhisiwa xivirisi xa byalwa, lexinga durhiki naswona xifana swinene na pollen hi swakudya swa xona.

Xinga phameriwa xi omile eka tinyoxi, kambe tikota ku xiteka ku antswa loko xiri hi xivumbeko lexi fanaka na peanut butter. Vahlayisi va tinyoxi lava ntsongo (lavangana mabaku mantsongo) vanga katsa xivirisi (yeast) na 50% wa syrup ya chukele. Phutsela hi wax paper kumbe phepha ra plastiki leswaku yitshama yirikarhi yi tsakama.

N’wamapurasi wale a Paarl Nico Langenhoven u kume leswaku ku phamela mpfanganyiso wa pollen leyingana 5 kuya eka 10% wa vulombe (fed on the brood frames as close as possible to the brood) swatirha swinene. Leswi swaha vula leswaku, tirhisa vulombe bya baku rero naswona kungari vulombe kusuka eka baku rin’wana hikuva sweswo swinga tisa mavabyi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni