Phepo ya Dinotshe tsa Tswine

© Magnus Manske
Dinotshe tsa tswine di tlhoka dijo go kgona go phela le go tswala. Di tlhoka dikhabohaetereite, disukiri mo botsheng kgotsa tswine ya dinotshe, diamino esiti poroteine e e tswang mo mmuduleng, diliphid - diesiti tse di mafura, disterol, dibithamini, diminerale matswai le metsi.

Dinotshe tsa tswine di tlhoka phepo e e humileng ka pharologano ya metheo ya mmudula go kgona go tlhama dithugisi tse di farologaneng. Dithugisi tse di a tlhokegang go ntsha mogare mo mebeleng ya tsona go tswa go dibolayadisenyi le malwetse le masole a mmele a a agileng thibela malwetse. Gantsi masole a mmele a a bokoa, seo se feletsang mo phepong e e kwa tlase mme tlala ke sebakosegolo sa dintsho tsa dinotshe.

Dinotshe tse nonofetseng tse di fepiwang sentle di ka nna botoka go tshela mo dikomelelong le mariga mme di tlhokomele dinotshe tse di nnye tsa go fetatse di sa amogelang phepo ya tlaleletso ya dinotshe.

Go Fepa Dinotshe Neng

Phepo ya dinotshe e botlhokwa fa tshelammogo ya dinotshe e le kwa tlase ka neelano ya go ya dijo tse di bolokilweng le fa go na le dijo tsa tlhago tse di nnye. Mo Aforika Borwa, ke fela 12% ya lefatshe e ka dirisiwang mo ntshodikunong ya dijalo tse di jaaka ditlhare tsa maungo, fa e le mafulo a tsa tlholego a dinotshe jaaka fynbos kwa Kapa Bophirima le yona e lekanyeditswe. Mafulo a tlholego a tswelela pele ka go fokodiwa ke leuba le melelo ya kwa nageng.

Tswine ya dinotshe mo motshitshing ke moteho wa dijo tsa dinotshe mo dikgweding tsa mariga mme ka dinako tse dingwe tsa tlhaelo ya dijalo tsa dithunya tseo di nonneng ka botshe. Ka nako ya komelelo kgotsa fa botshe bo se teng, dinotshe di dirisa dipolokelo tse tsa tswine ya dinotshe mo motshitshing go tshela. Gantsi phepo ya tlaleletso ya dinotshe le yona e a tlhokega morago ga ntsho ya tswine ya dinotshe.

Ka jalo go botlhokwa gore moruanotshe a baye leitlho gantsi bokakang jwa tswine ya dinotshe mo motshitshing go lekanya fa dinotshe di ka tlhokega dijo tsa tlaleletso, kgotsa fa metshitshi e tshwanetse go sutiswa go iswa nna kwa lefelong le le rileng la mafulo a mantsi a tlhago.

Phepo ya tlaleletso gantsi e ka fiwa fela fa pele ga tiragalo e e ka tlisang kgatelelo jaaka go ntsha twine ya dinotshe, go sutisa motshitshi ka ntlha ya tirelo ya go dulafatsa le pele ga go kgaoganya tshelammogo.

Phepo ya tlaleletso gape e ka tokafatsa boitekanelo jwa tshelammogo le kgosigadi.

Ke Eng o ka se Fepang Dinotshe?

©Syrio
Dinotshe di tlhoka dikhabohaetereite sukiri le poroteine mmudula.

Dikhabohaetereite di dirisiwa go tshegetsa themphereitšha ya mmele ya dinotshe le themphereitšha ya fa teng ga metshitshi.

Dinotshe gape di tlhoka mmudula jaaka motswedi wa poroteine, dibithamini, diminerale le dikhabohaetereite. Mmudula o dirisiwa go uma ntsha kuno ya jeli ya kwa bogosing eo ba tla e fepang kgosigadi le tsalo.

Go Jesa Dinotshe - Sukiri

O se ka wa fepa dinotshe tswine ya dinotshe ntle le fa e tswa kwa motshitshing wa gago. Malwetse a dinotshe a jaaka American foulbrood a ka anama ka tswine ya dintshe e tlhoka bolwetse mo motshitshing wa gago. Gape, monko wa tswine ya dinotshe o ka nna ngoka dinotshe tse di utswang go tsena mo motshitshing.

Bogolo fepa tshukiri e tshweu e e tlwaelegileng ka leswana la sukiri kgotsa tswine ka sukiri e tshweu le metsi. O seke wa dirisa matutesukiri, sukiri e e borokwa kgotsa dimolasse tse di ka tlholang letshololo mo dinotsheng.

Baruanotshe ba bangwe ba rata kabo ya karolo e le nngwe ya sukiri go karolo e le nngwe ya metsi, tlhapholo ya 1:1, fa ba bangwe ba rata tswine e e kimanyana ya dikarolo tse pedi tsa sukiri go karolo e le nngwe ya metsi 2:1. Metsi a thuthafetse a thusa go tlhapol sukiri, mme motswako wa sukiri ga o a tshwanela go nna bollo kgotsa go bedisiwa ka se se tla dira sukiri gore e nne kharamele.

Ka kakaretso, 1:1 ya tswine e tla tlaleletsa tswine ya dinotshe ya go bolokwa le go tsosolosa ditshelammogo go ntsha kuno tsalo ya dinotshe e ntšhwa. Fa tswine ya dinotshe e e kimanyana e dirisiwa go tlamela ka dijo fa dipolokoo tsa tswine ya dinotshe mo motshitshing e le kwa tlase. Go atlanegisitswe go simolola go fepa ka go fitlha litara e le 1 ya tswine. Se se tshwanetse go lekanela malatsi a a mmalwa.

Baya tswine mo tereing e e maphara ka fa tlase ga sekhurumelo sa motshitshi mmo o baye motlhokwana a bojang, dikalana kgotsa matlapa gore dinotshe di fitlhelele tswine kwa ntle ga go wela kwa teng le go betwa ke metsi.

Go Jesa Dinotshe - Mmudula

©JMK
Mmudula o siame fa o tlamelwa ke mefuta ya dimela tse di nang le mmudula mo tikologong ya motshitshi fela tlhokego e ka diragala ka tshimologo ya dikgakologo. Dinotshe tsa tswine di rata diteng tsa poroteine tse di ka nnang 25%. Metswedi ya mmudula e akaretsa sonobolomo 14%, eucalyptus 20%, le Mokgopha wa davyana 28. Mmudula wa kanola o na le maemo a a tshwanang a poreteinig e e kwa godimo.

Mo dinakong tsa tlhaelo, mmudula o ka tlaleletswa ka go dirisa dikemedi, reka go tswa mo batlameding ba didiriswa ba dinotshe, kgotsa mmudula wa tlhago. Gape mmudula o ka tsaya le go gasa bolwetse ba dinotshe ka jalo, dirisa dikemedi ka mmudula wa tlhago, fela o kgobokanye mmudula go tswa mo ditshelammogong tse di senang bolwetse.

Ngaka. Eric C. Mussen, wa Yunibesiti ya California Davis, kwa USA le ena o atlenegisa go fepa pidiso ya motitiedi, setswaki sa tlhwatlhwatlase se se tshwanang mmudula ka diteng tsa on a tsa dikotla.

E ka nna ya fepiwa e le omeletse mo dinotsheng, mme di e rata botoka fa go na le mokgwa o o tshwanang le matonkomane a botoro. Baruanotshe ba bannye, ba nang le palonyana ya metshitshi, ba ka tlhakanya sebedisi le 50% ya sukiri ya tswine. Phuthela mo pampiring ya boka kgotsa ditšhekase go e tshola e le monola.

Molemirui wa kwa Paarl wa dinotshe Nico Langenhoven e fitlhetse gore go fepa motswako wa mmudula le 5 go ya go 10% ya tswine ya dinotshe, fepiwa mo ditlhomesong tsa ditsalo gaufi thata le tsalo, go dira botoka. E rile, dirisa tswine ya dinotshe ya motshitshi mme e seng tswine ya dinotshe go tswa kwa ntle ga motshitshi ka ge e ka tlhagisa malwetse.

Translated by Lawrence Ndou