Ubuhlalu bama Ndebele Ndzundza Nobuciko

Badume Kakhulu Ngobuciko

©Dr Peter Magubane
I-Ndzundza Ndebele iyaziwa kakhulu ngobuciko bayo, ama-motifs afanayo, imiklamo nembala asetshenziselwa ukuhlobisa emasendlini (okwenziwe ngabesifazane) kanye ne-beadwork. Amaphethini afaka izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene kanye nezimpawu: ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwenziwa ngebunjwa bejometri, nezinto ezibonakalayo ezifana nezimbali, izinyoka, izinyoni nezilwane ezincane. Ezikhathini zanamuhla, izincwadi zezakhiwo, izitshalo zomoya kanye nezindiza zisetshenziswa. I-Ndebele yokuqala yayixhomeke kuma-pigment yemvelo (isothu, umlotha nobumba) emibala ngemihlobiso yabo. Nokho, lapho kufika abadayisi abamhlophe, babekwazi ukuthola amaphepha amaningi ahlukahlukene, asetshenziswe kakhulu namuhla.

Ngokwesiko, abesifazane basebenzisa isikhathi sabo emasikweni asezindaweni zasemuva ekwindla nasebusika, lapho kutshalwa khona ukutshala, ukuhlwanyela nokuvunwa kwezitshalo zommbila nommbila, futhi babe nesilinganiso sokungcebeleka esilinganiselwe. Lesi yisikhathi sonyaka lapho benza iningi lezinwele zabo, behlezi ndawonye emagcekeni abo emakhaya abo, bejabulela ukusebenzisana nabanye besifazane endlini kanye nokufudumala kwelanga ebusika. Nokho, ama-beadwork ayengewona umsebenzi wobusika kuphela, njengoba nawo wenziwa ngesikhathi samahhala ehlobo nasekuseni.

Inqwaba Yemihlobiso Egqokiwe

©Dr Peter Magubane
Kungumqondo we-moot noma ngabe ukuhlobisa komuntu siqu okwenziwa yi-Ndebele abesifazane kunomqondo wokuzibonela ngokwabo noma izifiso zabantu baseNdebele ukuze babe nesimo sabo njengabayeni abacebile aboniswa ngomhlobiso wabafazi babo. Ububanzi bezinhlobiso ezigqamile, eziba yinto emangalisayo emva kokushada kanye nobudala, mhlawumbe mkhulu kunaleyo yezinye izinhlangano.

Iirholwana, ibophe ama-hoops e-wire of ubukhulu obuhlukahlukene obugqoke abesifazane besendaweni zabo, izingalo, amaqaqa, imilenze, intamo nesisu, cishe ethandwa kakhulu. Esikhathini esidlule, lapho ikhaya lakhe lakhiwe, umfazi waseNdebele naye wayezogqoka izindandatho zethusi noma zethusi (iindzila) entanyeni yakhe. Lezi zikholelwa ukuthi zinamandla amakhulu okukhonza, nakuba zigqoke ngokugcwele ungeyona into evamile. Ngokuvamile, owesifazane osekhulile ogqoke lezi izindandatho uzobasusa ekuvakashelweni esibhedlela, ngemva kwalokho angeke ashintshwe.

Ngokwesiko umyeni wanikela umkakhe nge-iindzila yakhe; izindandatho ezingaphezu kwalokho ayezigqoke, umkhulu wakhe wayengumcebo womyeni wakhe. Imindeni ibhekwa ngumfazi ukuba yisibonakaliso sokuboshwa kwakhe kanye nokuthembeka kumyeni wakhe. Kuphela ekufeni kwakhe ngabe uzobasusa. Phakathi kokubili iManala neNdzundza, amantombazane agqoka imihlobiso kusukela esemncane. Lezi zihlanganisa ama-anklets, ama-wristlets nemigexo. Kule minyaka yobudala, bajwayele ukugqoka izingubo zokugqoka (iinrhabi), izinhlanzi ezincane zesikhumba ezinamathele okhalweni futhi zihlanganiswe nobuhlalu, ezihlanganisa ingxenye engenhla yamathanga. Lapho usakhula, esikhundleni se-i-urhabi, i-isiphephetu igqoke, isandulela esincane esine-rectangular futhi esinezintambo. Ngemuva kokushada, lokhu kufakwe esikhundleni sephophotho, isikhulu esikhulu sembuzi yezinyane lembuzi, esivame ukufika emaqenjini futhi sihlotshiswe ngokuhlotshiswe ngamacici amhlophe.

Ngosuku lwakhe lomshado, umakoti ugqoke ubuhlalu obugqamile obufihla ubuso bakhe ngokuphelele. Ngokwesiko imibala yobuhlalu yanikezwa ngokubaluleka okukhethekile, ekhombisa izigaba zentuthuko empilweni yomuntu, kusukela ebuntwaneni kuya kubazali. Ukuhlanganiswa kwemibala kubonisa isimo sengqondo somenzi: injabulo, ukulindela okujabulisayo, ukudabuka, noma ukungavikeleki. Ngokuthuthukiswa kwedolobha namanje, lokhu kuye kwanyamalala kakhulu. Indoda yesiNdebele ayijwayele ukuzihlobisa, ngaphandle kwemikhuba nemikhosi, lapho igqoka lokho abanikwe wona ngamakhosikazi abo.

Translated by Nsika Khoza