Porcupine
Ingungumbane

© Nigel Dennis

Igama

Ingungumbane [Hystrix africaeaustralis]

Ibukeka Kanjani

Zombili izingungumbane zase-Afrika zinesisindo esiwu-18 kuya ku-30kg (40 kuya ku-60 wamaphawundi) futhi zinde ngokulingana nezinyawo ezimbili. Ingungumbane yase-Afrika iwuhlobo lwegundwane olunameva amade acijile, angafika ku-50cm ubude, emhlane wonke kanti amiswe yimisipha engaphansi kwesikhumba.

Yize ibukeka ifana ne-Echidna kodwa ayihlobene nayo. I-Echidna, ebuye yaziwe ngokuthi umudliwezintuthwane onameva, iwuhlobo lwesilwane esizalela amaqanda esembozwe ameva amade acijile axubene noboya obude obuqinile. Njenge-Echidna, ingungumbane yase-Afrika inoboya obumnyama bese iba nameva amhloshana.

Ingungumbane yase-Afrika inkulu kune-Echidna ngokuphindwe kabili (wu-80.0cm ngo-47.5cm). Izingungumbane zase-Afrika zingamagundwane amakhulu esifundeni sazo. Izinsikazi, ngokuvamile, zinkulu kunamaduna ngo-1kg bese kuthi ubulili bobubili budlulana ngangesigamu semitha ngobude.

Ziphila isikhathi eside kunamanye amagundwane, ziphila iminyaka ewu-12 kuya kwewu-15 endle. Lezi zingungumbane zimbozwe uboya obulele obuhlabayo futhi zinezinungu nameva ngemuva nasezinhlangothini.

Umehluko phakathi kwezinungu nameva engungumbane usebudeni nasebugqinsini ikakhulukazi, ameva made ngo-50cm bese izinungu zinde ngo-30cm. Umqhele wameva nezinungu ezinebala elimnyama nelimhlophe uvuka noma yinini ngokuthanda ukuze wenze ukuthi isilwane sibukeke sisikhulu sesabeke.

Amanye ameva emsileni ayihobosha ngaphakathi futhi enza umsindo othi khehlekhehle uma enyakaziswa. Wona kanye la meva nezinungu ezicijile ayaphuma uma ethintwa yisitha noma enyakazisiwe, kodwa abuye amile ngokushesha. Izingungumbane zase-Afrika futhi zinezindevu ezinde.

Zidlani

Izingungumbane zase-Afrika zidla izitshalo ikakhulukazi, zisebenzisa amazipho ukugubha izimpande, okusamadumbe nezigumbaxa. Ziyazithanda futhi izithelo eziwile bese ziququda namagxolo kwenye izinkathi.

Ithumbu lazo elikhulu elingaphambili esiswini nethumbu lesengezo elinwebekile anezinambuzane ezihlafuna imithambo yezitshalo. Bayazisho futhi ukuthi ziyayidla nengcuba ngezinye izikhathi. Ezindaweni lapho ezingatholi khona ifosforasi (umsoco wamathambo), ziququda amathambo alahliwe.

Lezi zingungumbane zibutha inqwaba yamathambo ziyenze amaqoqo amakhulu emigodini yazo.

Zizalana Kanjani

Amaduna ezingungumbane athomba phakathi kwezinyanga eziyisishiyagalombili kuya kwewu-19, ekubeni izinsikazi zithomba zinezinyanga eziyisishagalolunye kuya kwezi-16. Ngenxa yemizimba yazo eyingozi, izinsikazi yizo ezinxenxa amaduna ukuthi azikhwele ngokuziletha wona emaduneni. Imitha izinyanga ezintathu.

Amachwane azalwa engamaphahla amane emgodini wabazali ondlalelwe utshani ngezinyanga zemvula phakathi kukaNcwaba kuya kuNdasa. Iqoqo lemidlwane ngokuvamile liba linye futhi isisindo sechwane ngokujwayelekile siba wu-311g. Amachwane azalwa iphelele, enamehlo avulekile futhi namazinyo ekhona.

Inezinungu nameva athambile lapho izalwa ukuze inyelezeleke kahle kodwa bese iyaqina uma isishaywe umoya. Imidlwane ikhula ngokushesha, ikhula ibe mdala ngonyaka. Zincela izinyanga ezintathu kuya kwezine, kanti isisindo siba wu-4kg kuya ku-5kg.

Emuva kokuncelisa amachwane yazo, izingungumbane zezinsikazi azikwazi ukumitha kuze kube yizinyanga ezintathu kuya kwezine.

Ziphila Kanjani

Uma ingungumbane ikhathele, iyabhonga futhi ivuse izinungu zayo ezimnyama nezimhlophe. Kunesigigaba sinye lapho ingwe yacishe yabulawa yingungumbane. Izingungumbane zihamba ngazinye noma ngamaqoqo.

Ngokuvamile ziyalala emini zidle ebusuku. Ingungumbane yase-Afrika ihamba ebusuku ikakhulukazi, noma ibonakala nasemini. Zinodlebe futhi ziyama khimilili uma kusondela izitha ezingamakati amakhulu, izinyoni ezizingelayo noma izimpisi.

Uma zivinjezelwe, lezi zingungumbane ziba nolaka, zigijime ziye emaceleni noma zihlehle ukuze zihlabe umhlaseli ngezinungu ezicijile. Ayilona iqiniso inkolelo yokuthi ziyadubula ngezinungu zazo, kodwa ziyaphuma esikhunjeni uma zishaya amakhwelo. Omunye umkhuba wokuzivikela wukungena emgodini ngekhanda bese ziveza izinungu ngemuva khona zingeke zikhishwe.

Kunezinungu eziyikhethelo okuthiwa yizimpempe ezikhehlezelayo uma zinyakaziswa.

Zitholakala Kuphi

Izingungumbane zase-Afrika zitholakala ngasemimangweni wolwandle kuya ku-2 000m ngaphezu kommango wolwandle ezindaweni eziningi ezinezihlahla. Zithanda amagquma anamadwala nezixhobo, ngoba kumele zibe nompheme emini.

Zivame ukukhosela emigedeni noma emigodini yesambane. Zakha nemihume engabawu-20m ubude nelawu elishona ngo-2m.

Zitholakala Kuphi

Zihlala eNyakatho Afrika, eNingizimu Afrika naseMpumalanga Afrika.

Izibalo Ezimqoka

Igama lesiLatin: Hystrix africaeaustralis
Isisindo (Insikazi): Wu-10 kuya ku-24 kg
Isisindo (Iduna): Wu-10 kuya ku-19 kg
Ubude (Insikazi): Wu-84 cm
Ubude (Iduna): Wu-84 cm
Inkathi Yokumitha: Amaviki awu-7
Isibalo Semidlwane: 1-4
Isisindo Sokuzalwa: Wu-315 g
Uhlelo: Rodentia
Umndeni: Hystricidae
Ukuzalana: Kuzalwa imidlwane emithathu noma nini onyakeni (ezindaweni zokuna kwezimvula yehlobo, ngoNcwaba kuya kuNdasa) emva kwenkathi yokumitha engaba yizinyanga ezintathu.

Incazelo yesiDladla

Ingungumbane inezinzwane ezinhlanu ezinyaweni zangaphambili, uzwane lokuqala luwucikicane ongenazipho. Ezinye izinzwane zinamazipho amade ekubeni izinzwane ezinhlanu ezinyaweni zangemuva zinamazipho.

Izinyawo zangaphambili nezangemumva ngalunye zikhombisa izintende ezintathu zesikhashana nezintende ezimbili eziseduze ekulobeni kwesidladla.