Isinyathelo ngesinyathelo sokwenziwa kwe-Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Inani elikhulu lamandla

Njengoba inkanyezi eqhumayo yeVredefort yafika emhlabeni eMhlabeni, isivinini sayo sasingaba phakathi kwamakhilomitha angu-40 000 no-270 000 ngehora. Lapho ihlaselwa emhlabathini, amandla amakhulu akhishwa ngokushesha lapho ukuqhuma okwakuphindaphindwe izinkulungwane ezinhlanu ngaphezu kwa-Little Boy, ibhomu lenuzi elabhubhisa iHiroshima. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi umthelela wawuyobe ulinganiselwa ku-14 ku-Richter Scale, noma izinkulungwane eziyikhulu eziphindaphindiwe ngaphezu kokuzamazama komhlaba okubi kakhulu okwake kwarekhodwa.

Inkanyezi enomsila eqhumayo emkhathini yangena emakhilomitha angaba yishumi emhlabathini ngaphambi kokuba iqhume ngaphansi kwengcindezi. Ihamba phakathi kwamadwala weTransvaal, Ventersdorp, Witwatersrand kanye neDomininion Supergroups kwaveza ingaphansi yegranayithi ye-Kaapvaal Continent.

I-Dimension Stone

Lesi simo esinecele enehlele kakhulu sasingaqinile, kodwa, futhi ngokushesha sawa ngezikhathi ngemva komthelela.Umjikelezo ongaphzeu kwentaba mlilo wahlukana waba amathala aqhelelene ngokulinganayo, ehla phansi emgodini ojulile. Kungakapheli amaminithi, umgodi ophezu kwentaba mlilo wandiswa wabe isigoxi esingashonile esinebanga elingamakhilomitha angamakhulu amathathu ububanzi. Yayisuka ePitoli iya eWelkom, futhi isabonakala nguchungechunge lwezigqoko ezigxilile (kufaka phakathi iWitwatersrand) eyashukunyiswa umthelela.

Ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho umcibisholo ubhidlika, ukukhwelisa kwakhiwa phakathi komgodi wentabamlilo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi, uma inkanyezi eqhumayo ishaya phansi , amadwala angaphakathi lapho ancipha. Ngemuva kokuba inkanyezi eqhumayo ihwamukile, ukuma kwengcindezi evela phezulu kwavumela lezi zindawo ukuba zibuyele emuva, ukuze ziphinde zithole ukulingana kwazo. Lokhu kukhululwa kwabangele ukuthi ingxenye yegranayithi yasendulo igwebe izingxube ezincane zamehlo ezibekwe ngaphezu kwayo.

Amatshe angaphambili aqoshiwe aseWitwatersrand naseTransvaal Supergroups aye afinyelela eceleni kwawo aguqulwa, ekwakheni ikhola elizungeze inqwaba ekhulayo yamadwala asezindaweni ezindala. Ukuphakanyiswa kwabe sekuma futhi, kodwa kwaqhubeka kuqhuma ngaphezu komngcele womgodi wentabamlilo. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, i-Vredefort granite yasendulo eyayiphakanyisiwe futhi yavezwa yaqothulwa, futhi izingxenye zayo 'zaleli dwala lobubanzi' zasetshenziselwa ukuhlobisa izinsika zendawo yokugcina yendawo esiteshini sezindiza eGoli.

Umhlaba onezintaba waseDome

Isimo somhlaba esalandela, njengoba ubonakala ngokuphakanyiswa okuphakathi okuzungezwe isigodi esibanzi, esibhebhethekile futhi siphukile, libizwa ngokuthi i-crater eyinkimbinkimbi futhi kufanele lifaniswe nezinqolobane ezincane 'ezilula', njenge-Tswaing. Ngokuyisisekelo, ukuphakama okuphakathi kuphela (okulinganisa ukulinganisa ngamakhilomitha ayikhulu ngaphesheya) kufanelisa njengeVredefort Dome. Isisele somgodi ophezu kwentabamlilo asivikelwe yimuphi umthetho wesabelo sefa.

Ngesikhathi somthelela, izinga lomhlaba laliphakeme kakhulu kunanamuhla futhi, ngaphezu kweminyaka eyizugidi zezigidi ezimibili eyedlule, isakhiwo se Vredefort sasigugulekile kakhulu. Eningizimu -ntshonalanga komgodi wentabamlilo, amadwala amasha eKaroo Supergroup agubungele isakhiwo se-dome, kanti ezinye inzika zigcwala emgodini ogcwele eduze kwedome. Namuhla, okubonakalayo okuseleyo kwe-dome kungumjikelezo omuhle wezingqimba ezifanayo phakathi kwamadolobha asePotchefstroom naseParys. Lesi sici esibukeka kahle sesayensi yomhlaba sibonakala ngokucacile emifanekisweni yendawo yangasese nesethelayithi, futhi manje sekuyaziwa ngokuthi iDome Bergland noma iDome Mountain Land.