Ama-San aseNingizimu Afrika

Obabamkhulu bamaSan

©Karl Svendsen
Izinduna zeSan-izikhulumi kungenzeka ukuthi zaziyizakhamuzi zokuqala zakwa-Afrika eseningizimu, nezindawo zokuvubukula ezivela emakhulwini ezinkulungwane zeminyaka. Amasayithi avela eminyakeni eyishumi eyi-10 edlule ye-Stone Age iqukethe izinto ezibonakalayo kanye nobufakazi bemikhuba nezindlela zokuphila ezizixhumanisa neSan yesigodi kanye nekhulu lama-20 leminyaka. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi laba okhokho babeyi-'San' engaziwa, njengoba igama lichaza abantu abakhuluma ulimi' ngokuchofoza 'ngaphakathi kweqembu lesiKhoisan, futhi amasayithi awavezi izilimi.

Okhokho baseSan baphila ikakhulukazi ngokuqoqa izitshalo, ukuzingela izilwane ezinkulu nokudoba umdlalo omncane. Egwini, abantu bancike ekudleni okuvela olwandle (izinhlanzi, i-shellfish kanye nezilwane zasolwandle). Babengenazo izindawo zokuhlala ezihlala njalo futhi bahamba ngezindawo zabo ngokwemfuno zabo, eminyakeni engaba ngu-2 000 eyedlule, abantu baseKhoekhoe (abelusi abahamba behamba ngezimvu nezinkomo zabo) kanye nabalimi be-Iron Age (ababephethe imfuyo futhi balima izitshalo, ngaleyo ndlela badinga izindawo zokuhlala ezihlala njalo) wathuthela eningizimu waya eNingizimu Afrika.

Ama-Khoekoe

Kusukela kumaKhoekhoe, ababenokuxhumana nabo ngokobuciko nezilimi, amaSan okhokho athola ubuciko wokwenza ubumba. Nakuba bengathathi ubuchwepheshe wokwenza insimbi enezimboni ze-Iron Age, izakhi zensimbi ezakhiweni ze-Later Age kamuva zibonisa ukuthi kwakukhona nokuxhumana phakathi kwabazingeli nabaqoqi kanye nabalimi. Kubonakala sengathi lezi zizwe ezinomnotho ohlukene zikhona nakuba, ngezikhathi ezicindezelayo zobukhosi, izingxabano zabhalwa (isibonelo, eDrakensberg, lapho iSan yaba khona ochwepheshe ngokubamba izinkomo namahhashi kubalimi abamnyama nabolontiya). Ukudlulelwa kweSan eningizimu njengeqembu elihlukile lemasiko nezomnotho mhlawumbe ngenxa yeminyaka eyikhulu edlule, futhi umthelela wekoloniyali kusukela ngekhulu le-17 kuya phambili: IziSan-izikhulumi zazigqilaziwe, futhi kwezinye izimo zaqothulwa ngobuningi. Abanye abaningi baba izisebenzi ezindaweni zokuhlala kanye nasemapulazini ezizungezile, okuholela ekubhujisweni kwemvelo yendabuko yaseSan ekuqaleni kwekhulu leminyaka.

Ukuphila

©Shem Compion
Ngokuvame ukuhlukaniswa, ngisho nanamuhla, i-San iye yamukela amasu amaningi okuphila komnotho, amasiko nezombusazwe. Isibonelo, namuhla bangagcina izilwane zasemakhaya (njengezimbuzi, izimbongolo nezinkomo) futhi zamukele izici zendlela yokuphila (pastoralist). Ukuphikelela kweSan ngokungangabazeki kunomthelela omkhulu emasikweni abo amasiko ahlale ecebile, okuye abasiza ukuba badwebe i-niche e-Kalahari eyomile, nemvula yayo encane kanye nokushisa okukhulu.

Translated by Nsika Khoza