Rixaka ra San wa Afrika Dzonga

Valehansi va San

©Karl Svendsen
Valehansi va vanhu lava vulavulaka ririmi xa San onge hivona vanga sungula ku tshama e Dzongeni wa Afrika Dzonga, laha kungana tindzhawu ta archaeology ta khale ku ringana madzana dzana na magidigidi wa malembe. Tindzhawu kusukela eka malembe yava 10,000 ya Stone Age lawa yangana vutshila xikan’we na vumbhoni bya maendlelo na tindlela ta vutomi lebyiva hlanganisaka na matimu xikan’we na va San va 20th-century. Hambi valehansi valava akuri va 'San' aswitiveki, sweswi misava yi hlamuselaka vanhu lava vulavulaka ririmi leringana 'click' eka rona eka tindzimi ta mintlawa ya Khoisan, naswona tindzhawu leti ati hlamuseli tindzimi.

Vale hansi va San ava hanya ngopfu varikarhi va hlengeleta swimilani, vahlota swiharhi leswikulu xikan’we naku phasa leswintsongo. Ekusuhi na lwandle, vanhu ava dya swakudya leswi aswikumeka e lwandle (hlampfi, shellfish naswihadyani swale matini). Avangari na ndzhawu ya nkarhi hinkwawo leyi ava tshama eka yona naswona ava famba tindzhawu leti tingana swilaveko swa vona, kuringana kwalomu ka 2,000 wa malembe lawa yanga hundza, vanhu va Khoekhoe (varisi lava ava fambafamba na tinyimpfu ta vona na tihomu) kukatsa na van’wamapurasi vakhale (lava avari na swifuwo naku rima masimu, leswi aswilava ndzhawu yin’we yotshama kona) varhurhele e dzongeni wa Afrika Dzonga.

Khoekoe

Kusuka eka Khoekhoe, laha xinkavani na ririmi ra vona swisukelaka kona, valehansi va San vakume kona vutshila byo vumba timbita. Hambi leswi vanga tekelangiki ndlela yo switirhisiwa swa tinsimbhi leswi aswi endliwa hi van’wamapurasi va Iron Ages, swiendliwa swa nsimbhi eka tindzhawu ta Stone Age swikomba leswaku akuri na kuhlangana eka vahloti na van’wamapurasi. Switikomba onge vanhu lava vangana ti ikhonomi to hambana hambana, eka minkarhi yava koloni, mintlimbo yive kona (xikombiso, e Drakensberg, laha va San vanga hundzuka vativi nkulu vaku yiva tihomu na tihanci eka van’wamapurasi va vantima na valungu).

Ku fa ka ndzhavuko na ntlawa wa ikhonomi ya va San vale dzongeni swingava swivangiwe hi malembe lawa yotala xikan’we na ntshikelelo wava koloni kusukela eka 17th century kuya emahlweni: vanhu lava vulavulaka San vahundzuriwe mahlonga naswona hi minkarhi yin’wani vahungutiwa. Van’wani votala vahundzuke vatirhi eka tindzhawu ta valungu tale kusuhi na mapurasi, leswinga endla leswaku kuherisiwa mindzhavuko yotala eka va San vale Dzongeni eku sunguleni ka century leyi.

Ku Hanya

©Shem Compion
Hambi leswi ava tsan’wiwa hi xitalo, hambi namuntlha, va San vatekelele maendlelo yotala ya ikhonomi, ndzhavuko xikan’we nati polotiki leswaku vata hanya. Xikombiso, masiku lawa vanga fuwa swifuwo swale kaya (kufana na timbuti, ti donki na tihomu) naswona va tekelele na swin’wana leswi fambelanaka naku risa swifuwo tani hindlela ya vutomi.

Ku kondzelela ka xrixaka ra San aswi kanakanisi leswaku swi sukela eka mfuwo na vukhale bya ndzhavuko wa vona, leswinga vapfuna swinene kuva vakuma ndzhawu eka mananga lawa yanga oma e Kalahari, laha na mpfula yikalaka xikan’we na mahiselo yale henhla swinene.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni