Uluntu lwama San

Izinyanya zama San

©Karl Svendsen
Izinyanya zama San kuqikelelwa okokuba ngabantu bokuqala ukufika kweli lo Mzantsi e-Afrika, nendawo ezigcina ulwazi lwembali zibuyela umva kwiminyaka engamakhulu namawaka weminyaka. Iindawo zokugqibela zeminyaka engama 10 000 zelitye elidala lamava neentwana-ntwana nobungqina bezenzo nendlela yobomi edibanisa imbali kunye nama San wenkulungwane ye 20th century. Ukuba ezizinyanya zazingama ‘San’ akwaziwa, kuba igama lichaza abantu abaphakamisa ulwimi balubeke kwinkalakahla xa bethetha zaziwa ngesingesi ukuba lulwimi lwe ‘clicks’ kulwimi lweqela lama Khoisan, kwaye iindawo azivezi iilwimi.

Izinyanya zama San zaziphila kakhulu ngoku ngokuqokelela izityalo, ukuzingela izilwanyana ezinkulu bethiyela ezincinci. Kumanxweme olwandle abantu babexhomekeke kukutya intlanzi yolwandle (intlanzi ekwiqokobhe, nezilwanyana zolwandle). Babengenayo indawo esisigxina yokuhlala behamba imigama kwindawo ngokwezidingo zabo, kwiminyaka engama 2000 eyadlulayo, abantu abangama Khoekhoe (abelusi ababehamba-hamba neegusha neenkomo zabo) kunye namafama amadala (awayenemfuyo elima iintsimi, yiyo lonto ayefuna indawo esisigxina yokuhlala) basingisa eMazantsi ku Mzantsi Afrika.

Ama Khoekhoe

Ukususela kuma Khoekhoe, ababedibene ngegazi kwaye behlobene nangolwimi ababelithetha, izinyanya zama San zafunda isakhono zokwenza izinto ngomdongo. Nangona bangazange babufunde ubuchwephesha bokwenza iintsimbi ezomeleleyo ngama fama amadala, akudala kwindawo zamatye akudala zibonakalisa okokuba kwabakho unxulumano phakathi kwabazingeli - nabaqokeleli kunye namafama. Kubonakala ngathi abantu ababekwisimo esahlukileyo sezezimali babephila nabo, nangona ngamaxela okuthinjwa iingxabano zazishicilelwa (umzekelo, eDrakensberg, apho ama San abangama chule okuba iinkomo namahashe kumafama amnyama nama koloni). Ukuphela kwama Southern San njengeqela elingaqhelekanga lenkcubeko nezomnotho kwenziwa yiminyaka edlulileyo engamakhulu adlulayo, kunye nomba wama koloni (colonialism) ukusuka nge 17th century ukuya phambili: abantu abathetha ulwimi lwama San babengama khoboka, ngamanye amaxesha babulawe bonke beliqela. Uninzi lwabo lwaba ngabasebenzi ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwindawo zama koloni neefama, oku kwaphelela ekutshatyalalisweni ububona ngokwe mveli yabo njengama Southern San ekuqaleni kwale nkulungwane.

Ukuphila

©Shem Compion
Babe bekelwe bucala, nkqu nanamhlanje, ama San athathe iindlela ezininzi ukuphila ngezomnotho, inkcubeko kunye nezopolitiko. Umzekelo, kulemihla banezilwanyana zekhaya (ezifana neebhokhwe, iidonki, kunye neenkomo) kwaye banazo nendlela zoba ngu melusi ebomini. Ukunyamezela kwama San kwenziwa kukutyeba kwenkcubeko yabo nemveli, ethe yabanceda ukufumana indawo entlango eyomileyo i-arid Kalahari, enemvula enqongopheleyo nobushushu obumangalisayo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie