Ama-Ntwana ase Mzantsi Afrika

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukwabelana nge Nkcubeko

I-Kwarrielaagte ekwiphondo lase Mpumalanga eMzantsi Afrika yeyona lali inkulu yama Ntwana. Yathengwa kumfama amhlophe ekuqaleni kwale nkulungwane, indlela eyenziwe ngayo iKwarrielaagte, kunye namasiko endawo, indlela zokunxiba kunye nobuchule bemizobo zabantu bendawo, zibonakalisa ukuzinza kwendlela abaphila ngayo. Lungu ngalinye kweliqela linomsebenzi nesikhundla esibekiweyo, ngokwendalo namasiko asekuhlaleni kumhlaba wabo ucocwe kukutshintsha kwembali, iimeko zokuhlala kunye nenkcubeko ezibadibanisayo.

Ukwabelana ngenkcubeko phakathi kwama Ntwana kunye nama Pedi kucaca ngokufana kwindlea yokunxiba kwilokhwe (omama kulamaqela omabini banxiba uhlobo lwelokhwe ethile ngokwesiko), izithethe, indlela yokwakha (omabini amaqela ahlala kwi ndawo ezise Northern Sotho) kunye nolwimi abalisebenzisayo. Ama Ndebele aziwa okokuba ebesondelelene kakhulu nama Ntwana, oku kwabethelelwa ngokuthi batshatane, imisebenzi yolwaluko yenziwe kunye, nokufana kwehombo zamabhinqa, njenge hombo yentamo enentsimbi enxitywa ngabafazi kumacala omabini. Omathathu amaqela athi athobele indlela yokwahlulwa ngesini ngemisebenzi kuxhomekeke kwezezimali nolimo emakhayeni asezilalini, ukuze baphile.

Imvelaphi yama Ntwana

Ngokufanayo kwi Transvaal ama Ndebele nama Pedi, ekupheleni kwenkulungwane i19th century ama Ntwana ayejongene nokuthinjwa nokoyiswa kunye nemithetho yabasebenzi abangaba phambukeli, imithetho eyayisebenzela ukutshabalisa izimali kwimimadla enee lali. Ezimeko kwimvelaphi zanyanzela imithetho namasiko ukugcina indlela yobomi eyayitshintshwa.

Igama elithi Ntwana (‘intloko eqinileyo’ okanye ‘iqhawe’) kuthekelelwa okokuba lisuka kwiqhawe elingqunge indawo yamaqela ohluliweyo asuka eBamangwato. Kucaca okokuba omnye wonyana benkosi wathi wenza okunga qhelekanga malunga nokutyiwa kwenyama yenkunzi yenkomo. Wayehlala ekhutshwa kwimbalelwano egxothwa kunye naba ngcatshi ekupheleni kweminyaka yo 1780 bayokuqulunqa iqela lama Ntwana. Kule mihla eliqela lihlala kwindawo yase Moutse, eMazantsi ase Groblersdal kwiphondo lase Mpumalanga. Nangona ama Ntwana ingawona maninzi ahlala eMoutse, indawo igcwele ama Pedi, Swazi, Sotho kunye nama Ndebele.

Kude kwafikelela ku 1986 iindawo ezohlukileyo zazihlala ndawoninye kwaye ngokuthula, besabelana ngendlela yokuphila, besenza imisebenzi yenkcubeko kwaye betshatana. Lemvano yaphela kwa ngonyaka ka 1986 ngokuthi kunyanzelwe ukudibanisa iMoutse kwikhaya lendawo yakudala yakwa Ndebele. Ama Ntwana awazange avume ukutshintsha indawo yokuhlala; kuba babezi bandakanye kwezopolitiko ngaphambili, baqalisa ke ukwenza umkhosi, indawo engase Dennilton nase Kwarrielaagte yayindawo yokulwa, hayi kuphela amaqela angakwicala okanye achasene nemikhosi karhulumente, kodwa nkqu kumasapho nabamelwane. Kodwa phakathi kwalombhodamo, amasiko amaninzi ama Ntwana aqhubeka, ingakumbi lawo enziwa ngabafazi. Nangona amadoda abo ayengeyiyo ingxenye- kuba uninzi lwawo lalusebenza njenge mbacu zabasebenzi kwezinye iindawo- banyanzeleka ukukhathalela ezezimali zelali logama babeqhubeka nemisebenzi yabo yesintu njengabafazi kunye nabo bamithayo bakhulise abantwana.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie