Xiyimo xa Vatswana Evanhwini

Ku Hambanyisiwa hi Rimbewu na Malembe

©Dr Peter Magubane
Rimbewu na malembe hiswona switirhisiwaka ngopfu eka xiyimo eka rixaka ra Vatswana. Leswi aswi kombisiwa ngopfu hitindlela totala: vavanuna na vavasati avnga tshami eka ndzhawu yin’we loko kuri na tinhlengeletano; xikan’we na tindzhawu tin’wana, e.g. eka kgotla (council-place), ayiri ya vavanuna ntsena. Vana va majaha, naswona hi minkarhi yin’wana vaha, tsakeriwa, naswona wansati loyi a tswalaka vanhwenyani ntsena anga xiximiwi.

Akuri na ku hambana eka ku nyikana mintirho, laha kungana mintirho yokarhi leyi nyikiwaka vanhu va rimbewu rokarhi. Wansati wa Mutswana a tekeriwa hansi nakona a fanele kuva a nyikiwa swileriso hi vavanuna (tata wa yena, boti kumbe malume kufikela aya tekiwa; nuna wayena kumbe boti wa nuna). Vavasati avanga katsiwi eka tinhlengeletano ta tipolotiki xikan’we naya swavukhongeri.

Malembe na wona ayari na xiave eka ku hambanyisiwa loku. Kufana na vanhu van’wana lava vulavulaka ririmi ra Bantu, Vatswana ava fanele kuva va hlonipha xikan’we naku yingisela lavakulu ka vona, vavitaniwa tatana (rra kumbe ntate) kumbe mhani (mme); loko wotsandzdeka ku endla sweswo awu xupuriwa. Ku hlonipha lavakulu aswi hundza eka muti wakwe kuya eka vaaki. Vana ava hlengeletiwa kuya hi vukulu bya miri wa vona: kusukela eku tswariwa kuya eka malembe ma 2 (masea); 3 kuya eka 8 (banyana); vafana (basemane) na vanhwenyani (basetsana) va 9 kuya eka 13; naswona kusukela eka 14 kuya fikela loko vaya eka xiyimo xo ringana vukhomba (magwane, majafela kumbe maphatisi).

Vafana eka maphatisi ava ambala swiambalo swohlawuleka kutani vayimbelela tinsimu xikan’we naku cina eka tinhlengeletano to hambana hambana loko vari eka malembe lawa, naswona avari na ntshuxeko, ngopfu ngopfu eka timhaka ta masangu. Hinkarhi lowu, ava teka nkarhi woleha vari eku riseni ka tihomu. Vanhwenyani vata pfuneta hiku kelela mati, vatlhokola kumbe ku kandza mavele, kululamisa swakudya, vakukula tiyindlu kutani vahlayisa vana lavantsongo.

Ku Yimbisiwa Lokunga Heriki

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ku ringanela kuva u ringana kuya yimbisiwa (mophato) swikombisa kukula ka munhu. Kuyimbisiwa (mophato) swikatsa vavanuna na vavasati va malembe lawa ya ringanaka lava yimbisiwaka hinkarhi wun’we. Kuya hi ndzhavuko madlala/vukhomba wuta yimisiwa hi hosi endzhaku ka mune kuya eka nkombo wa malembe, loko vana va vafana na vanhwenyani lavanga exikarhi ka malembe ya 6 kuya eka 20, ava yimbisiwa. Ntirho wa mophato hi xitalo wukatsa xirho xa muti wale vuhosini lexi tekiwaka tani hi murhangeri. Malembe lawa yanga hundza madlala awu endleriwe vavanuna laha awu heleketiwa hiku yimbisiwa leswitivekaka hi, bogwera.

Hiva 1930s, hambiswitano, mintirho leyo tani se ayinyamalarile, ngopfu ngopfu hikwalaho ka Vavuri va rito lava ava fikile avaswiteka swiri swahava kutani vahlohletela tihosi kuva ti switshika kutani vaswiyirisa. Mhaka nkulu eka timhaka ta madlala ka bogwera akuri kuva kuyimbisiwa naku vekiwa e xihundleni ka majaha e nhoveni. Loko vari le ngomeni, swigwamatshuku swi vekiwa eka swiyimo swotika swinene, laha swi dyondzisiwaka ku kondzelela hambi switika, milawu, ndzhavuko na maendlelo ya xintu.

Vanhwenyani navona vayisiwa evukhombeni, eka ntirho lowu vuriwaka (bojale) lowu khomeriwaka e kaya. Leswikatsaka ku cina, ku khankha kukatsa naku funghiwa laha mathangeni. Evukhombeni swikhombani swa panichiwa naku vekiwa eka swiyimo swotika swinene, kutani swikuma swiletelo eka mintirho yale kaya na vurimi, swa masangu xikan’we na matikhomelo eka vavanuna.

Munhu un’wana na un’wana loko a vuya e ngomeni a vuya a nyikiwa vito hi hosi ya ngoma yoleyo, hi xitalo ariva rifambelana na leswi humelelaka hinkarhi walowo, ku fana na timpfula toka tinga tolovelekangi na dyandza. Ntirho lowu wa ngoma (mophato) wu hlayisile vito leri kusukela kwalano. Munhu anga tekiwi a kurile naswona anga pfumeleriwi ku teka kumbe kutekiwa kufikela yaisiwa e ngomeni (mophato). Swirho swa ngoma aswitirha, eka vavanuna, va tlegiwa valwa, kambe aku tlhela kuva na vuxaka bya kahle swinene eka tintangha.

Kuva na moya waku hanyisana kun’we xikan’we na kutinyungubyisa hikuva vayile e ngomeni: ku kombisa ku hlonipha hi loko un’wi vitana hi vuto rale ngomeni ku tlula kun’wivitana hi vito leri anga tswariwa na rona. Swigwamatshuku aswi languteriwa ku hlonipha vanhu lavanga ya engomeni kusungula, leswaku navona vata hloniphisiwa xisweswo hi lava ntsongo eka vona. Loko kuri na lava vanga tlula milawu kumbe swipimelo leswi fambisanaka na ngoma akuri na khoto laha swirhalanganya swotani a swi lulamisiwaka kona laha na lavanga rhangela ngoma vanghenelelaka.

Mpfuxelelo Lowukulaka

©Dr Peter Magubane
Hambi leswi akuri na kuringeta swinene hi vavuri va rito va vakriste lava avari kona leswaku ku herisiwa ngoma ekusunguleni ka 20th century, kufikela namuntlha kahari naku tlakuka ka nhlayo ya ngoma eka rixaka ra Vatswana, tani hileswi kungana votala lavanga amukela tidyondzo leti kumekaka engomeni naleswaku ati vutisiwi. Ngoma yi hundzuke xikombiso xa vutitivi hitindlela timbirhi: vanhu vativona vari Vatswana hikuva va yimbisiwile hindlela ya Xitswana; xa nkoka swinene, hileswaku kuna kutinyungubyisa kokarhi loko munhu a yimbisiwile laha swinwinyikaka vutitivisi bya xi Afrika, naswona vantshwa lava tsandzekaka kuya e ngomeni vatekiwa vangari ma Afrika. Maendlelo lawa ya landzelela maendlelo lawa ya fanaka na lawa aya tirhisiwa khale, kambe va cinca kantsongo kuya hi leswi swilo swa manguva lawa swiendlisiwaka xiswona, ku tlula switirhisiwa swa khale.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni