Izikhundla Emphakathini wamaTswana

Ukuhlukaniswa Kobulili Nobudala

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ukuhlukaniswa ngokobulili nokuhlukaniswa kweminyaka sekuyisikhathi esibaluleke kakhulu esimweni somphakathi emphakathini wase-Tswana. Owake wavezwa ngezindlela eziningi: amadoda nabesifazane babehlala ndawonye emibuthanweni yomphakathi; nezinye izindawo, isb. i-kgotla (indawo yomkhandlu), yayingamadoda kuphela. Amadodana ayekhona, futhi ngezinye izikhathi amanje, ayethandwayo, nowesifazane owayethwele amadodakazi kuphela ayevame ukudelelwa. Kwakukhona ukuhlukana komsebenzi, nemisebenzi ethile eyabelwe abantu besilisa ngamunye. Owesifazane wase-Tswana ungumncane ongunaphakade olawulwa yilabo abanakekeli besilisa (uyise, umfowabo noma umama umalume kuze kube umshado; umyeni wakhe noma uyise noma umfowabo). Abesifazane babengekho emhlanganweni wezepolitiki nasemikhosi yenkolo.

Ubudala babuyisisekelo sokuhlukanisa. Njengezinye izikhulumi ze-Bantu, isiTswana kwakufanele sihloniphe futhi sibahloniphe labo asebekhulile kunabo, sibabiza ngokuthi 'ubaba' (ubaba noma ubaba) noma 'umama' (mama); ukwephulwa kwalesi simiso kwakuyisenzo sokugwetshwa. Ukuhlonipha abadala kudluliselwa ngaphesheya komuntu womphakathi kuwo wonke umphakathi. Izingane zahlanganiswa ukuthuthukiswa ngokomzimba: ukuzalwa kuze kube seminyaka emibili (amasea); 3 kuya ku-8 (banyana); abafana (basemane) namantombazane (basetsana) ka 9 kuya ku-13; futhi kusukela ngo-14 kuze kube yilapho besabelwe isethi seminyaka (magwane, majafela noma maphatisi). Abafana baseMaphatisi babevame ukugqoka izingubo ezikhethekile futhi benze izingoma nemidanso emibuthweni yokubeka iminyaka yabo, futhi babe nenkululeko enkulu, ikakhulukazi ezindabeni zocansi. Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, bachitha isikhathi esiningi ezinkampanini ezifuywayo ezifuyusa imfuyo kayise. Amantombazane asiza ngokutshala amanzi, ukugaya nokugaya, ukulungisa ukudla, ukuhlanza izindlu nokunakekela izingane ezincane.

Ukuthwasiswa Kwamabutho

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ukunikezelwa kwisigaba seminyaka yobudala noma i-regiment (mophato) ibonakalise ukuguqulwa kube umuntu omdala. I-mophato yayinabantu abesilisa noma besifazane abaneminyaka elilinganayo ubudala abaqalwa ngesikhathi esifanayo. Ngokwesiko umkhosi wawuzobunjwa yinhloko njalo eminyakeni emine kuya kwesikhombisa, lapho abafana noma amantombazane afanelekayo, abaneminyaka engama-6 kuya ku-20, beqala ndawonye. I-mophato njalo yayihlanganisa ilungu lomndeni wenkosikazi okwamanje lamukelwa njengomholi. Eminyakeni eminingi edlule ukudalwa kwendoda yesilisa kwakuhambisana nemikhosi eqala ukuqala, eyaziwa njenge-bogwera.

Kodwa-ke, ngawo-1930, imikhosi yayiye yaphela, ikakhulukazi ngoba izithunywa zevangeli ezingamaKristu zazizibheka njengokuziphatha okubi futhi ziyizinduna 'eziqhubekayo' zokuziyeka nokuzivimbela. Isici esivelele kunazo zonke ze-bogwera kwakuwukusoka nokwehlukaniswa kwamalungu wesilisa omusha omusha endaweni engasodwa emaphandleni. Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwabo, iziqalo zazibhekene nobunzima, zihanjiswe ngokulandelana kwazo futhi zifundisa imithetho, amasiko namasiko.

Amantombazane nawo aqaliswa, emcimbini (bojale) owahlala ekhaya. Kwakuhlanganisa ukudansa, ama-masquerade kanye nokunye uhlobo lokusebenza (ngokuvamile ukufaka uphawu emathangeni angaphakathi). Ukuqalwa kwabesifazane kufaka phakathi izijeziso ezimbi kanye nezinye izinkinga, kanye nemfundo ehlelekile ezindabeni eziphathelene nokuphila kwekhaya nokulima, ubulili nokuziphatha kubantu.

I-mophato ngayinye yanikezwa igama ngenduna ekuqalisweni, evame ukubonisa isenzakalo esenzeka esikhathini esizayo, njengezimvula ezingavamile noma nesomiso. I-mophato igcine lelo gama kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuya phambili. Umuntu wayengabhekwa njengomuntu omdala futhi engavunyelwe ukushada kuze kube yilapho ehlala e-mophato. Amalungu enhlangano asebenza futhi, uma kwenzeka amadoda, alwa ndawonye, ​​kodwa ayengabangane abasondelene ababengalingani. Umqondo wokubambisana nokuziqhenya ngokwemvelo wawubophe amalungu: uphawu oluthile lokuhlonipha lwaluzobhekana nendoda ngegama lakhe lomkhosi kunokuba lakhe.

Amalungu esigungu kulindeleke ukuba ahloniphe yonke imibhalo eyakhelwe ngaphambilini futhi, futhi, angalindela ukuthi aphathwe ngokuphikiswa yizingane zabo. Ukuphulwa kweziyalo kulezi zindaba kanye nezinye izinto ezihambisana nenhlangano yokuphatha kubhekwe nezinkantolo ezikhethekile ezikhangelwe ngabaholi bamazwe.

Ukuvuselela Okuqhubekayo

©Dr Peter Magubane
Naphezu kwemizamo yezithunywa zevangeli ezingamaKristu zokuqeda ukuqaliswa ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-20, kunamhlanje imvuselelo ekhula njalo phakathi kwabakwa-Tswana, njengabanye abaye bamukela isikhathi eside ukuthi lezi zimfundiso akufanele zibuzwe. Ukuqala sekuyisibonakaliso sokuthi ungubani ezinyangeni ezimbili: abantu bazibona njenge-Tswana ngenxa yokuthi baqaliswe yizinhlanga zesi-Tswana; Okubaluleke nakakhulu, kunomqondo oqinile kuwo wonke amazwe angaphandle ukuthi ukuqala kokuqala kuwuphawu lokuthi u-African identity, futhi ukuthi abantu abadala abasha abahluleka ukuthola uhlobo oluthile lokujwayela ukuqala akuzona 'abantu baseNingizimu Afrika'. Imikhuba ilandela amaphethini afana nalawo asetshenziswe ezinsukwini zakudala, kodwa njalo ngezici ezintsha ezenza kube yinto enkulu kakhulu yesikhathi esizayo, kunokuba zilandelwe.

Translated by Nsika Khoza