Sigaba eMmangweni wema Tswana

Bulili ne Mehluko we Mnyaka

©Dr Peter Magubane
Bulili nemehluko wemnyaka bekusolo kuyintfo lendze lebalulekile ngesigaba sema Tswana emmangweni. Lendlela beyiboniswa ngetindlela letiningi: emadvodza nabomake bebahlala ngekwehlukana emicimbini yemimango; nakuletinye tindzawo, kufana ne kgotla (indzawo-yakhansela), beyiyemadvodza kuphela. Emadvodzana beka, nakuletinye tindzawo basa, nconotwa, bese make lotala bantfwana bemantfombatana kuphela bekavama kwenyanya.

Bekukhona kuhlukana kwemsebenti, nemisebenti letsite lebeyinikwa bantfu bebulili bunnye. Make wemTswana yintfo lencane lephindzekako loyintfo lengemandla kulabamgadzile (babe wakhe, umnakabo noma malume wakhe esayidini lakubo make wakhe kuze kufike sikhatsi sekushada; umyeni wakhe noma babe noma umnakabo). Bomake bebangafakwa emihlanganweni yetembusave kanye nemicimbini yenkholo.

Umnyaka wawuphindze usicalelo etintfweni temehluko. Njengalabanye labakhuluma-iBantu, emaTswana bekumele ahloniphe aphindze alandzele labo bebabadzala kunabo, bebababita bo 'babe' (rra noma ntate) noma 'make' (mme); kwephulwa kwalomtsetfo kwakuba licala. Kuhlonipha labadzala kwendlulela kumunye wemndeni kuya kummango wonkhe. Bantfwana bebabekwa ngekuma kwemitimba yabo: kusuka ekutalweni kuya kuminyaka lemibili (masea); iminyaka lemitsatfu kuya kulesiphohlongo (banyana); bafana (basemane) nemantfombatana (basetsana) eminyaka leyimfica kuya kulolishumi nakutsatfu; nekusuka kulelishumi nakune baze bafike esigabeni labakhetselwe sona semnyaka – lobekiwe (magwane, majafela noma maphatisi).

Bafana emaphatisi bebavame kugcoka tembatfo bese benta tingoma nemidanso emicimbini ngeminyaka yabo-lebekiwe, bebanenkhululeko lenhle, ikakhulu etindzabeni tebulili. Ngalesikhatsi lesi, bacitsa sikhatsi sabo lesiningi etindzaweni-tetinkhomo balusa imfuyo yabo babe wabo. Lamantfombatana bekalekelela ngekukha emanti, kushaya kanye nekusila ummbila,kulungisa kudla, kushanyela tindlu, nekunakekela bantfwana labancane.

Kusoka Kwemabutfo

©Dr Peter Magubane
Kubekwa emnyakeni-lobekiwe noma bubutfo (mophato) kumaka kungena ebudzaleni. Bubutfo bebufaka emadvodza noma bomake bemnyaka lolinganako labasoka ngesikhatsi lesifanako. Ngekwesintfu libutfo lingakhiwa sikhulu ngeminnyaka lemine kuya kulesikhombisa, ngesikhatsi bafana noma emantfombatana lakhona kwenta lutfo, laneminyaka lesitfupha kuya kumashumi lamabili, bebasokwa ndzawonye. Lelijaha belihlala lifaka lilunga lemndeni wesikhulu lengaleso sikhatsi abevunyelwa kutsi ahole. Eminyakeni leminingi ngaphambilini lokwakhiwa kwelijaha lelidvuna bekuphekeletelwa yimicimbi lechazako yekusoka, leyatiwa ngekutsi yi bogwera.

Ngeminyaka ya 1930, nomakunjalo, lemicimbi beseyinyamalele, ngalokuphansi ngoba emamishini emaKholwaa bekatsi yintfo lembi futsi kuphambene 'kuyachubekeka' tikhulu tiyabalahla tiphindze tibavale kwenta lutfo. Intfo lebeyibonwa ye bogwera bekungulokusoka kanye nekuhlukaniswa nemalunga esilisa elibutfo lelisha endzaweni lebebabekwe kiyo emadlelweni. Ngesikhatsi bahlaliswe bodvwa, basoki bebafundziswa ngebulukhuni, bahlelwa ngendlela yesincumo nekufundziswa ngemtsetfo, sintfu nemasiko.

Emantfombatana nawo bekasokwa, emcimbini (bojale) lobewubanjelwa ekhaya. Bekufaka umdanso, kutiphatsa nendlela yekwenta (kakhulu kumaka ngekhatsi kwelitsanga). Kusoka kwebesifazane bekufaka kuphanishwa lokuncane kanye nalobunye bulukhuni, kukhombisa etintfweni letibhekene netintfo tasetindlini nemphilo yekulima, telicansi nekutiphatsa kwemadvodza.

Ngamunye umbutfo bekanikwa libito sikhulu ngesikhatsi sekusoka, kakhulu kubonisa intfo, lefana nelitulu noma somiso. Lombutfo bekagcina lelibito kusuka lapho kuzekuze. Umuntfu bekangatsatfwa njengalomdzala futsi bekangavunyelwa kutsi ashade kuze kubengulapho abesebutfweni lelitsite. Emalunga elibutfo asebenta futsi, esimeni sebudvodza, balwa ndzawonye, kepha bebanebudlelwane lobulinganako. Indlela yebusotja kanye neligcabho lebubutfo njengemalunga: indlela yenkhomba yekuhlonipha kwakukukhuluma nendvodza ngelibito lekubutseka kwayo kunelibito layo mbamba.

Emalunga emabutfo bekugadvwe kutsi ahloniphe emabutfo onkhe aphambilini futsi, ngengucuko, angagadza kuphatfwa ngekwehluka ngulabancane kunabo. Kwephulwa kwemitsetfo kuloku naletinye tintfo letihlangene nenhlangano yebubutfo bekusetjentwa ngendlela lehlukile endzaweni yemacala baholi bemabutfo.

Imvuselelo-Lehlala iKhula

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngaphandle kwemitamo yemaKholwa emamishini ngekuvala kusoka ekucaleni kweminyaka lemashumi lamabili endvulo, namuhla kukhona kukhula-lokuhlala kukhona emkhatsini wema Tswana, nakulabo labanye labamukela kadzeni kutsi leti timfundziso akukameli tibutwe. Kusoka sekube yintfo yekutfola ngetindlela letimbili:

bantfu batibona njengemaTswana ngekutiphatsa kahle ngekutsi basokwe ngemcimi lomaka sigaba emphilweni yabo; lokubaluleke kakhulu, kukhona intfo lecine kakhulu kulamanye emave lahamba ngaphansi kwekusoka njengentfo lekubonwa ngayo ema Afrika, nekutsi labadzala labancane labangakhoni kuhamba indlela yekusoka abatsatfwa njenge ma Afrika 'angeliciniso'. Lamalungiselelo alandzela indlela lefana naleyo leyasetjentiswa ngetinsuku takudzala, kepha sonkhe sikhatsi ngetintfo letinsha letitenta tibetinhle kakhulu, kunekutsiwa lisiko lakudzala.

Translated by Phindile Malotana