Nkoka wa Tinyoxi ta Vulombe

© NP Mothapo
Ti pollinators, hi xitalo, titisa mbuyelo wohambana hambana eka vanhu. Vukahle bya hina byiya hi swilo swotala swa ecosystem na mintirho ya swona. Kotala, ti pollinators hitona tingana xiave naku tiyisisa rihanyu ra kahle eka ti ecosystems leti. Pollination swivula ku fambisiwa ka pollen kusuka eka swiohemu swa xinuna kuya eka swa xisati swa mabilomu naswona leswi switisa mbuyelo wakuva kutswariwa mihandzu hi nsinya. Mihandzu yotala, mbewu na swibyariwa swa ti berry switshembele eka switsotswana, ngopfu ngopfu tinyoxi ta vulombe kutiyisisa leswaku mihandzu yiva kona.

Tinyoxi ta vulombe, titekiwa tani hi swinwana swa nkoka swinene kuva switsotswana swi fambisa pollen emisaveni hinkwayo. Switsotswana swi fambisa pollen yinwana na yinwana, leswi swivula leswaku switsotswana swi vhakela swimilani swotala leswingana mabilomu. Leswi swi endlaka leswaku swiva swankoka swinene, i vuswikoti bya kuva swilawuriwa hi vahlayisi va tinyoxi. Tinga hlayisiwa emabakweni naswona tinga susiwa kuyisiwa laha kungana madyelo ya kahle.

Mbuyelo wa Tinyoxi

Kambe xana i yini lexi tinyoxi ta vulombe ti hoxaka xandla hi xona eka vunene bya hina lexi endlaka leswaku tiva na nkoka? Naswona xana ahi swikoti kukuma mbuyelo lowu kusuka eka switsotswana swin’wana swati pollinators ke? Kuya hi vulavisisi, byi hlamusela leswi landzelaka:

Tinyoxi tihlayisa swimilani swotala swinene swale nhoveni leswi seketelaka biodiversity yotala na switirhisiwa swa ecosystem ya hina.

Tinyoxi tina nkoka swinene tani hi ntlawa wati pollinators, ti vhakela kutlula 90% wa tinxaka ta swimilani leswi fambaka emahlweni swa 107 emisaveni hinkwayo.

eAfrika Dzonga, kutlula 50 wa tinxaka ta swimilani switshambele eka tinyoxi kuva ti endla pollination. Leswivulaka leswaku, tinyoxi titiyisisa kuhangalaka kotshembeka ka mbewu na mphakelo wa mihandzu hikwalaho ka pollination. Ku hlanganisiwa na leswi, iku antswisiwa ka mbuyelo wa swibyariwa na khwalithi hikokwalaho ka pollination leyi faneleke. Tinhlayonhlayo tikomba leswaku kutirhisiwa ka vulombe lebyi xavisiwaka eka pollination swi antswisa mihandzu leyi humaka, ntikelo na khwalithi ya mihandzu.

Eka nkarhi wa sweswi, swisungule ku tikomba leswaku swimilani leswi langutelaka pollination hiswona switisaka swakudya swotala kukatsa na vitamin A na C, calcium, fluoride nati folic acid 10. Tinyoxi ti pollinater swotala swa swimilani leswi.

Tinyoxi ti hoxa xandla, hindlela leyi kulu, ku endla mintirho hinkwako eka kuhlayisiwa ka tinyoxi nale mapurasini. Leswi swi hoxa xandla swinene eka vuhlayiseki bya swakudya naku herisa vusiwana. Ku xavisiwa ka vulombe na swin’wana leswi endliwaka hikwalaho ka tinyoxi (kufana na propolis na beeswax) swipfuneta ku tisa mali.

Tinyoxi titlhele titikomba kuva ti hlohletela naku tiyisisa ndzhavuko. Xikombiso, vulombe byi na mbuyelo wotala swinene eka vutshunguri lebyinga katseku vufambisi byati anti-bacteria na diabetes. Eka matiko yofana na China, Egypt, Spain, nale Mexico, tinyoxi tifambelanisiwa swinene na ndzhavuko na mfuwo, vutshila, vuyimbeleri xikan’we na vuxaka e vanhwini. eAfrika Dzonga, ku hlanganisiwa ka khale ka tinyoxi ta vulombe na vanhu hi lokuya ka San Bushmen, vakombise vuxaka bya vona na tinyoxi na vulombe eka vutshilabyavona e maribyeni.

Mintiyiso ya Industry ya Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

Kuya hi vukorhokeri bya pollination lebyi nyikiwaka hi vahlayisi va tinyoxi eka van’wamapurasi, industry ya mihandzu hiyona yinga tsarisiwa kahle ngopfu. Industry leyi yina kwalomu ka mbuyelo wo tlula R13 billion naswona yi endla kutlula 180 000 wa swivandla swa mintirho (HORTGRO 2016).

Tihakelo leti pfumeleriwaka ta pollination kuya hiva Western Cape Bee Industry Association i R802 eka lembe ra 2018, kuya fika eka R745 hi 2017 (WCBA 2018).

Swimakiwa swa vulombe bya tinyoxi swipimanyisiwe kuva kwalomu ka R100 million (Allsopp, 2000).

Industry ya tinyoxi yi vanga mintirho ya kutlula 3000 ya vanhu (NAMC Report 2008).

Translated by Ike Ngobeni