I-Robben Island: Ijele labanengi

Iindlela Ekhabe Iimbotjhwa Ziphathwa Ngayo Kade

©Eric Miller
Ubujamo be-island ngeminyaka yabo-1700 ibudisi kobana ungayiqhaza ngombana kungakatlolwa ngayo nokungabi khona kwemakhiwo, kodwana umuntu angaqabanga bona ipilo beyingasibudisi.

Iimbotjhwa ezinengi bezikateleleke ukwenza umsebenzi obudisi e-island, bakapa igwari nanyana badobhe amaqephe.

Ukulethwa kokudla bekuhlala kukuncani begodu abantu bakateleleka iimbotjhwa ezimbalwa kobana zingenele umtjhagalo.

Akukho kulokho ebekungaqeda ukurhalela kwabo itjhaphuluko. Begodu balinga ukubaleka amahlandla amanengi Ngembala zinengi iimbotjhwa ezabaleka eRobben Island kunokuvunywako.

Bekuhlale kwetjiwe iinkepe ngendlinazo, nenkepe zabantu bangaphandle nazo bezinande zijama ngokungasisemthethweni esihlengelenesi, ngethemba lokudobha ezinye zazo.

Ezinye kungenzeka bona zaduda zaphumela ngale kwelwandle zafika ezwekazini.

Isizukulwane Sesibili Sembotjhwa ze Robben Island

©Tracey Derrick
Iimbotjhwa zokuthoma zepolotiki e-Robben Island bekuma-khoi khoi agade aphikisana nomthetho wama-Dutch nababusi abaphikisana nawo ebabuya kwemanye amalunga wobukhosi be-Dutch East India Company, ezifana ne-Indonesia. Isizukulwani sesibili bekubadosi phambili bendabuko ababuya e-Eastern Cape ebabotjhwa bathunyelwa e-island, kwesinye isikhathi baphekelwe bafazi babo nabentwababo. Abantu be-Britain bebalwa nabahlali balapho mahlangothi woke weSewula Africa ekhulako. Gade zikhona ezinye iimbotjhwa zepolotiki ngaphandle kwamaXhosa aqeda isikhathi e-Robben Island ngeminyaka yama-1800.

Amanye amabushmen nama-khoi khoi athunyelwa khona ngombana mayelana nendimabo e-Bokkeveld Rebellion of 1824. Ikosi yamaZulu uLangalibalele, ihloko yamaHlubi, wabotjhwa, wabanjwa lapho kusukela ngomnyaka ka-1874 to 1875 ngokuphikisana kwabo nombuso we-Britain ose Natal. Abadosi phambili bepi ye-Korrana, balwa emlanjeni we-Orange River ngonyaka ka-1870 and 1879, ebabotjhelwa ukwalwa kwabo ukuhlonipha iNdlovukazi kanye nephasi labo.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe