Ukuphakama koMbuso wamaZulu

© Dr Peter Magubane

UShaka Zulu

Ngo-1787, uSenzangakhona, induna encane yeZulu (eyathatha igama layo kumunye wabantwana abaphikisana noMalandela), wazala indodana ngaphandle komshado, uShaka. Ngemva kokukhonza iminyaka eminingana ebuthweni likaDingiswayo, lapho evelele khona njengomphathi wezempi kanye nesiphathimandla, uShaka waba yinkosi yaseZulu ngokufa kukayise.

Ngaleso sikhathi iZulu laliyiqembu elincane labantu abangaba ngu-1 500, okusho ukuthi uShaka wayezimisele ukwakha umdlali omkhulu ekuthuthukisweni kwezombusazwe. Kusukela emadodeni ambalwa angathungatha phakathi kweZulu, wadala ibutho le-embryo okwathi eminyakeni engaba ngu-12, yaba yinto eqinile yokulwa ekugcineni eyayihlanganisa namabutho amaqembu ahlala azimele. Ngokwenza kanjalo, waguqula umbusi wakhe omncane waya esizweni esinamandla saseZulu.

Ngo-1828 uShaka wabulawa ngabafowabo abafowabo, uDingane noMhlangana. Ngemuva kokuhlukunyezwa okubabayo phakathi kwabazalwane ababili nabalandeli babo, uDingane wazuza phezulu futhi wathatha ubuholi bombuso waseZulu. U-Dingane wayengenalo ikhono lempi likaShaka kanye nezimfanelo zobuholi ezidingekayo ukubamba umbuso wakhe ndawonye, ​​ngakho-ke isakhiwo uShaka esasidalile siqala ukuqhuma. Izikhulu zokuhlubuka zahlukana futhi uDingane wayengenalo ikhono lokubacindezela.

UDingane

Abahlali abamhlophe baqala ukufika eNkaloni yaseKoloni ngezinombolo ezikhulayo, befaka ukungezwani okusha kulezo zikhathi ezinzima. Amagquma aluhlaza ayebonakala ngabakwaVoortrekkers (abalimi abamhlophe abadabukile ababefuduka empumalanga yeKapa) njengabadala babo, futhi benza uDingane indawo yokuhlala lapho bekwazi ukuhlala khona bese bebeka amapulazi abo.

Inkosi yaseZulu inesaba ukuthi lokhu kuzoba yisiphetho esincane somgqa owawuzogcina umqede esihlalweni sakhe sobukhosi, ngakho-ke waba noPiet Retief, umthumeli weVoortrekker owayezoxoxisana naye, nabangane bakhe babulawa. Uphinde wathumela ibutho lakhe ukubulala abesifazane nabantwana babo namadoda aqaphele amakamu aseVoortrekker eB Bloukrans eseduze, ngase-Estcourt yanamuhla.

Labo abasinda bafungisa, esivumelwaneni noNkulunkulu, ukuphindiselela ukufa kwabo nokwakha isonto ngenkazimulo yaKhe uma kunqotshwa ukunqoba empini ngokumelene neZulu. Ngomhlaka 16 kuDisemba 1838 emfuleni weNcome River, ebizwa ngokuthi uMfula i-Blood, ukuphindiselelwa kwakungenangqondo futhi kuhloswe ngegazi. Amadoda angaphezu kuka-3 000 aseMelika abulawe empini, kanti umholi weVoortrekker kuphela omele ukulimala okuncane.

Ukunqotshwa kwakuhlazisa futhi umgogodla weDingane's Power wawungenakulinganiswa kahle. Kodwa-ke, ibutho lakhe lagcina lihlukunyezwa lapho uMpande, umfowabo kaDingane osele, esebenzile kakhulu futhi wakha ibutho elinamandla, wamhlasela emagqumeni aseMaqongqo eduze komngcele waseSwaziland.

U-Dingane, manje owayengumphangi waseZulu waseMelika onabantu abambalwa, wazama ukubalekela eSwaziland kodwa wabulawa ngaphambi kokuba afinyelele khona. UMpande, inkosi ehamba isikhathi eside kunazo zonke emlandweni weZulu, waphumelela uDingane esihlalweni sobukhosi futhi wabusa umbuso wezulu waseMelika kusukela ngo-1840 kwaze kwaba sekufeni kwakhe ngo-1872.

UMpande wayebhekwa njengengozi, uma engekho idiot, ngoDingane, ngakho-ke lapho uDingane elahlekelwa yizo zonke izinsongo ezithandwayo zakuleli esihlalweni sobukhosi. Kodwa-ke, waba umbusi okhaliphile odlala zombili zomkhawulo wezepolitiki - ukugcina ukuhlonipha kodwa okufanelekayo kumakhelwane abamhlophe eColony yeNatali eningizimu yoMfula iThukela, ngenkathi egcina ukulawula nokuthembeka kwabafundi bakhe enyakatho emfuleni.

Ngemuva kokufa kukaDingane, indodana yakhe, uCetshwayo, yaba yinkosi entsha ngo-1872. Wayengumuntu onamandla ovuselela umyalo omkhulu wempi wakhe umalume wakhe, uShaka, esebeneminyaka engu-50 ngaphambili; nalokhu kwavela ukuvuselelwa kokuziqhenya kweZulu kanye nokuqonda kwekusasa. I-specter yesizwe samaZulu esasenyakatho yeThukela saqala ukuthumela ukuthuthumela ngeNatali yaseKoloni. Izikhulu zeNdlovukazi kaVictoria Victoria zizimisele ukubona ukulawulwa kweNgisi kwanda lonke elase-Afrika, kusukela eKapa kuya eCairo.

Umbuso wamaZulu ubhekwa njengesisongo esikhulu kulo mbono, futhi impi phakathi kweNgilandi neZulu yaba yinto engenakugwema. Kwaqala emva kokuqedwa okungenakwenzeka okukhishwe yiBrithani kuya kwaZulu kwakunganakwa. Ukungqubuzana okukhulu kokuqala kwakukhona e-Isandlwana ngo-21 Januwari 1879 lapho i-Zulu ibangela ukunqoba okukhulu ibutho laseBrithani elahlushwa emlandweni walobukhosi. Impi yaphela ngo-Okthoba mhla zingama-4 kuNtulikazi wonyaka ofanayo, lapho indlunkulu yaseCetshwayo e-Ondini ishaywa phansi futhi amabutho akhe ahlasela.

Ukuphatha okusha kwe-Zululand

Ihhovisi likaKoloni lithatha ukuphathwa kweZululand futhi ngokushesha lahlehlisa ukunciphisa amandla endlini yobukhosi ngokuhlukanisa amandla ezombangazwe phakathi kuka-13 ubukhosi obuzimele. Lokhu kwaholela empini yombango ephikisayo, isikhathi sokuphikisana okuqhubekayo nokungenelela okwandayo kokuphathwa kobuholi baseNatali kuhulumeni nokulawula izindaba zeZulu.

Ngokufika kweNyunyana ngo-1910 nokulawulwa okumhlophe phezu kweNingizimu Afrika yonke, amandla amhlophe asemthethweni agxilile futhi ithemba lenkosi yamaZulu lokuthola ukuqashelwa kwezwe lakhula ngokuya. Isimo seNdodana kaCetshwayo, uDinuzulu, nomzukulu wakhe, uSolomon, sancipha saba yinduna ejwayelekile, esecelwe ngokungaphezu kokulawula indawo encane yalokho okwake kwaba umbuso wamaZulu.

Kwakuyi-1950 kuphela lapho uhulumeni kaZwelonke eqoka umzukulu kaKing Catshwayo, uCyprian, njengenhloko yeZulu. Noma kunjalo, amandla wamanje wamandla asuke angokomfanekiso. Njengalokhu, uthatha imbazo engcwele (inhlendla) ngezikhathi ezibalulekile zombuso, futhi uqondisa izinqubo eziyinhloko, phakathi kwabo Umkhosi Wemihlanga Wonyaka, owethulwa ngo-1984.

Translated by Nsika Khoza