Imidwebo Yomgede yamaSan

Amagugu Omgede

©Roger de la Harpe
Imidwebo emangalisayo eyenziwa okhokho baseSan emadwaleni nasezindongeni zomhume nomkhombandlela kuthiwa yiyona enhle kakhulu futhi enembile kakhulu embonini yomzingeli wezokuzingela emhlabeni. Ukuqoshwa okulinganayo kwamakhono (petroglyphe) kutholakala ikakhulukazi ngaphakathi kwezwe, kodwa ukudweba kwenzeka kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezinamatshe noma ezintabeni ezifana neDrakensberg (KwaZulu-Natali), i-Eastern Cape, naseningizimu-ntshonalanga Koloni (kufaka phakathi i-Cederberg). Izibalo zabantu kanye ne-antelope enkulu zivame kakhulu ukuboniswa, futhi izici ze-landscape azivami ukufakwa. Ngezizathu ezingaziwa, ukuqoshwa kufaka imiklamo engaphezulu engabonakali kunemidwebo. Ekuqaleni, abantu abaningi bacabanga ukuthi lobu buciko buyizithombe ezibonakalayo ezivela ezimpilweni zansuku zonke, noma amarekhodi okuzingela, nakuba umqondo wokuthi ubuciko buhlanganiswe nenkolo nemfundiso yamasiko kwakukhona kusukela ekuqaleni. Isiko lobuciko lashona ngalelikhulu leminyaka, ngisho nangaphambili kwezinye izingxenye zezwe.

Imibala eyayisetshenziswa yiSan ebuciko bayo yayiyinhloko enkulu, kusukela e-orange kuya emanzini nase-maroon; ophuzi; mnyama nokumhlophe; kanye nezinzuzo zabo. Aluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka noma aluhlaza okwakusetshenziswa ngaso sonke isikhathi Kudingeka amasu amakhemikhali ayisimanje ukuze aphenye ukwakhiwa kwezingulube, futhi imibuzo eminingi ihlala iphendulwa. Ama-pigment abomvu atholakala ku-haematite (ocher obomvu) nokuphuzi kusuka ku-limonite (ocher ophuzi). I-Manganese oxide kanye namalahle aphindaphindiwe asetshenziselwa ukudweba amnyama, kanti ukugqotshwa okumhlophe, okungagcini kahle, kungenzeka ukuthi kwenziwe nge-kaolin noma i-droppings yezinyoni. Ngawo-1930, inxenye endala-indoda yaseSan, eyayibonile abadwebi baseSan, yabonisa le nqubo njengoba yakhumbula, futhi yathi idinga igazi le-eland ukuxuba ne-pigment - ngokungangabazeki isithako esingokomfanekiso nesimangalo.

Ukuthandana Nemidwebo Yamadwala Eyenziwe ama-San

Ukuthandana no-rock art kunzima kakhulu. Ngeke kuvame ukuba yi-carbon dated, ngoba lezi zinhlayiyana azihlanganisi (okungukuthi azikho i-carbon) futhi ngoba ubuningi bezinto eziphilayo ezisetshenzisiwe bincane kakhulu ukuze zivivinywe. Uma ama-flakes eqoshiwe edwaleni atholakala emigodini yokuvubukula, izinto eziphilayo ezigciniwe ezifanayo zingahle zilandwe, zinikeze isilinganiso esilinganiselwe. Isayithi elilodwa laseNamibia liye laletha izinsuku ezingaphezu kuka-26,000 iminyaka yobudala bezingodo zamatshe nge-black pigment kubo, kodwa zonke ezinye izinsuku zingena eminyakeni engama-10 000 edlule. Iningi lemidwebo ebonakalayo ebusweni bomdaka cishe yincane, ngoba ukudweba kanye nendawo yamadwala kunengozini yokulimala nokubola. Ukudweba kukaDakenensberg kwamahhashi namasosha kubonisa ukuthi le midwebo ayikwazi ukuqala ngaphambi kwekhulu le-19.

Isici esihlabayo se-San yobuciko yizibalo zomuntu ezihamba ngokubanzi, ezibonisa ngokucacile isenzo nesivinini. Isenzo siboniswa ngezindlela eziningi ezihlukahlukene: ngokuphawulekayo, ngezilwane ezisuka noma zixhuma, futhi ngokuzenzekelayo, nge-flick yomsila noma i-twist yentamo. Ngezinye izikhathi imidwebo yenza umqondo wokukhathazeka ngokuthatha umzuzu nje ngaphambi kokuthatha isinyathelo, njengomculi ngokukhipha imicibisholo yakhe, noma ingonyama ngokukhipha. Njengazo ezinye izici zokuphila kweSan kanye namasiko, kunokuhluka kakhulu nobubanzi, ngesitayela, isihloko nokunye, kanye nokufana okukhomba ukuthi baphefumulelwe izinkolelo ezifanayo zenkolo.

I-bichrome emihle (imibala emibili) kanye ne-polychrome (imibala engaphezu kwemibili) imidwebo ye-eland, isilwane esibaluleke kakhulu esingokomfanekiso eSan eseningizimu, iyisinye isikhombiso ekuhlanganyeleni kwezenkolo zabanye, mhlawumbe kakhulu, kwezobuciko. Ukudweba kwemidanso, lapho abesifazane beshaya khona ngesikhathi abantu bedansa, nabo bahlanganisa ezinye zobuciko ekuphulukeleni okwenkolo, njengoba ziyaziwa eK Kalahari San. Ukudwetshwa kwamasosha, izinqola kanye nemifanekiso efanayo kungahle kube yingxenye yemilingo emsebenzini, kodwa futhi urekhode izenzakalo zomlando - kuhlanganise nalabo okuholela ekugcineni ekutheni umdwebo wokudweba, kanye nendlela yokuphila yeSun hunter-gatherer eNingizimu Afrika.

Translated by Nsika Khoza