Ku Pendiwa ka Mabaku hiva San

Nhlayiso Wa Mabaku

©Roger de la Harpe
Ku pendiwa loku ko saseka swinene loku valehansi vava San leswi siyiweke emaribyeni na makhumbi ya mabaku xikan’we na laha vatshamaka kona switekiwa tani hi swinwana swo saseka ngopfu naku endliwa hi vurhonwani eka misava ya vutshila bya vahloti. Swivatliwa swantokoto (petroglyphs) leswi kumekaka ngopfu endzeni ka tiko, kambe leswinga pendiwa switele ngopfu, ngopfu ngopfu e tintshaveni ta maribye kufana na le Drakensberg (KwaZulu-Natal), e Eastern Cape, nale e dzonga vupela dyambu bya Cape (kukatsa nale Cederberg).

Swivumbeko swa vanhu na timhunti letikulu hiswona leswinga tala kuva swi dirowiwa kufikela sweswi, kukatsa na swiphemu swa rivala leswinga taleki ku katsiwa. Hi swivangelo leswinga tivekeki, ku vatliwa loku kukatsa ngopfu vutumbuluxi bya khwalithi kutlula leswi pendiweke. Eku sunguleni, vanhu votala ava ehleketa leswaku vutshila lebyi abyi kombisa vutomi bya siku na siku, kumbe vumbhoni byo hlota, hambi leswi miehleketo yaleswaku vutshila byi fambelana na vukhongeri xikan’we nakutshemba kokarhi aswiri kona kusuka eku sunguleni. Ndzhavuko wa vutshila lebyi se awu file eka century leyi, hambi kuri khale eka swiphemu swin’wana swa tiko.

Mihlovo leyi ayi tirhisiwa hi rixaka ra San eka vutshila bya vona aku tele yotshuka, kusuka eka orenji kuya eka buraweni na meruni; xitshopani; ya ntima na yobasa. Muhlovo wa wasi na rihlaza ayinga tirhisiwi. Aku laveka kuva ku tirhisiwa ti khemikali toka tinga twisiseki ku endla vulavisisi eka leswi mihlovo yinga endlisiwa xiswona naswona swivutiso swotala switshame swinga hlamulekangi. Muhlovo wotshuka awukumeka eka tsumani (haematite,red ochre) kasi wa xitshopani wona awu huma eka limonite (yellow ochre).

Manganese oxide kukatsa na charcoal minkarhi yin’wana ayi tirhisiwa leswaku kuta huma muhlovo wa ntima, loko wobasa lowunga hlayisekiki kahle, wungava wuhuma eka kaolin kumbe matoto ya xinyenyani. Hi malembe ya va 1930s, wanuna wa khale wa San, loyi anga languta swinene eka vapendi va San, u kombisile maendlelo hindlela leyi aswi tsundzukisaka xiswona, naswona a hlamusele leswaku a lava ngati ya Phofu (Eland) kuva kuta huma muhlovo wakahle — asikanakanisi leswaku aswi yimela swokarhi naswona swi endla masingita.

Ku Veka Siku Eka Vutshila Bya Maribye Ya San

Ku veka siku ra vutshila bya maribye switika ngopfu. Aku tsaleku na vito hikuva mihlovo yakona ahiya ntumbuluko (i.e. yihava carbon) naswona hikuva nhlayo yati organic elements leti tirhisiweke yintsongo swinene kuva yikamberiwa. Maribye lawa ya phemelelekaka ya kumeka eka migingiriko ya archaeology, ti organic material leyinga eka leyara yaleyo yinga tiveka siku ra yona, laha kunga ehleketeleiwaka vukhale bya kona.

Kuna ndzhawu yin’we yale Namibia leyinga vuyerisa masiku yo tlula kwalomu ka kutlula 26,000 wa malembe eka maribye lawa yangana muhlovo wa ntima eka wona, kambe masika lawa yan’wana ya wela ehansi ka malembe ya 10,000. Ku pendiwa kotala kaha vonaka eka maribye nalawa yangariki yak hale ngopfu, tani hileswi pende na maribye swikotaka ku bola kumbe ku onheka xiyimo. Ku pendiwa kale Drakensberg ka tihanci na masocha ku kombeta leswaku kupendiwa loku kungaka kunga hundzi 19th century.

Lexi vonakaka ngopfu eka vutshila bya San i swifumbeko swa vanhu leswinga khavisiwa, leswi kombaka munhu ari eku tsutsumeni hi rivilo. Leswi endliwaka hi munhu swikombetiwa hi tindlela totala to hambana: kuya hi xikece, hi swiharhi switsutsuma kumbe ku tlula, kumbe xiyimo lexinga twisisekeku, hiku pulutela ncila kumbe ku hundzuluxa nhamu.

Nkarhi wun’wani leswi pendiweke switisa switisa ntlimbo hikuva swikombisa swokarhi eka leswi endliwaka, kufana na munhu loyi a copaka nseve loko alava ku wucopa, kumbe loko nghala yilava ku tlula. Kufana na swin’wani swa vutomi bya vanu va San na ndzhavuko wa vona, kuna kuconca cinca kukulu xikan’we na ku anama, eka xitayele, nhlokomhaka xikan’we na swin’wana, leswi fambisanaka na leswi fanaka leswinga vulaka leswaku vahlohleteriwe hiku tshembha eka vukhongeri lebyi fanaka.

Leswi pendiweke swiri na mihlovo yimbirhi kumbe mihovo yo tlula yimbirhi ya xifaniso ya Phofu (eland), xiharhi lexi kombisaka nkoka wukulu eka rixaka ra vanhu vale dzongeni va San, i xikombiso xin’wani xa leswaku vukhongeri bya van’wana, kumbe bya votala, bya vutshila. Swifaniso swa mincino, laha vavasati va phokotelaka mavoko kutani vavanuna va cina, swi hlanganisa vutshila byin’wana byo horisa moya, tani hi leswi switiviwaka hiva San va Kalahari.

Ku pendiwa ka masocha, swigolonyani kukatsa na swifaniso swin’wani leswi swingava swive xiphemu xa leswingo ehleketiwa kambe swinga humeleli, kambe swinga tlhela swi tsala ehansi matimu ya swinwana leswi humeleleke— kukatsa na leswi swinga vanga leswaku ku herisiwa ndzhavuko wo penda, kukatsa na ndlela ya vutomi ya vahloti va rixaka ra San e Afrika Dzonga.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni