Uphuhliso Kuluntu lama Pedi

© Dr Peter Magubane

Eyona Ndawo Ibalulekileyo kuma Pedi

Ama Pedi athi emveni kokoyiswa ngama Britane afudukela kwindawo ezazisele zibekelwe wona. Okokuqala enye yezindawo yayi yindawo ebalulekileyo kuluntu lwama Pedi (Pedi Heartland), iSekhukhuneland. Kwezinye iindawo ezihamba zidibane, iSekhukhuneland yathi yadityaniswa ne Lebowa ngeminyaka yo 1960 yabekwa njenge khaya kuluntu lwase Northern Sotho. Ukongezeleka kwabantu kunye nokwehla kwezinga lomhlaba kwezindawo kwenze nzima ukuba iintsapho ziphile ngokulima kuphela. Amadoda anyanzeleka ashiye imizi ahambe ayokusebenza ze afumane umvuzo. Kodwa ke kusekhona ukuzinikela ekulimeni amasimi, kukhofolwe ngamaxesha athile xa amadoda ekwi khefu okanye abaqashiweyo balime, bakhofole kwaye babe zingcaphephe kulomsebenzi. Eyona ndlela eqhelekileyo, amadoda ama Pedi ayechitha ixesha elincinci esebenza kwimfama ezikufuphi, ekuhambeni kwexesha bafumane imisebenzi ezimayini okanye basebenze kwizindlu, nakwimizi mveliso. Ulawulo, ukuhlakula nako konke okubandakanya amasimi kwakubekwa ezandleni zamakhosikazi alamadoda.

Nangona ke bephantsi kolawulo olunzima ebomini babo ngenxa yokusebenzela umvuzo, amadoda ama Pedi awazange avume konke-konke ukuphazamisa ezezimali ‘zekhaya’ – indima yokufuya iinkomo kunye nezolimo. Iintsapho ziyaqhubeka ukulima noku fuya imfuyo, hayi kakhulu ngenjongo yokuphila kodwa ngendlela yokubonakalisa ukuzinikela kwindlela yokuphila yase makaya ukuze bangasokoli xa bathe bathabatha umhlala phantsi. Kutsha nje, abafazi baqalise ukusebenzela imivuzo nabo. Abanye basebenza phambi kokuba batshate, okwe xeshana efama, abanye nokuba bayayiqhawula imitshato okanye bagqibe okokuba abazoku tshata, babesebenza ukususela ngeminyaka yoo 1960 njengabancedisi emakhitshini kwidolophu zase Goli.

Ubukhosi

Nangona amajoni ama Pedi athi ohlulakala ngenkulungwane ye 19th century, amaPedi ke ayaqhubeka ukuhlonipha ubukhosi, ingakumbi eSekhukhuneland. Kulapho ke isitulo salowo uphezulu uMohlaletse sikhoyo, ama Pedi ke enze iinzame ezininzi ukwakha obubukhosi kwakhona emveni koko. Ezinzame zabanzima ngexesha leminyaka yo 1950, xa urhulumente wocalu-calulo wayezama ukusebenzisa iinkosi zasekuhlaleni okokuba zingenelele phakathi kwabaphetheyo nabase ‘magunyeni kwi Bantu’. Ama Pedi anyamezela kwiziphatha mandla ze Bantu ngonyaka ka 1958 uqhanqalazo lwe Sekhukhune lenza uMorwamobe abalekiswe, ongu mzukulwana ka Sekhukhune kunye nendlalifa ezingabahambeli badlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuhambiseni imibono yezo politiko kunye neendlela zokubeka imiteto phakathi kwedolophu nasemaphandleni, kwathi ke kwasekwa amasebe amaninzi wombutho i-African National Congress (ANC) ngelixesha.

Nangona ama Pedi amaninzi sele ehlala kwaye ezinzile kwidolophu zase Rhawutini, inkoliso yawo iqhubeka izinikele kwi Bopedi (Indawo yama Pedi) esemaphandleni. Iinkosi kunye nabo ingengabo abasebukhosini babona ukoyisakala korhulumente wobandlulo eLebowa kunye nokuba ibekhona ku Mzantsi Afrika omntsha kwiphondo lase Northern Cape.