Iziduko zama Xhosa kunye no Bukhosi

© Dr Peter Magubane

Iziduko

Isiduko sisetyeniswa ngulowo uyindoda mdala okanye obhinqileyo kwa Xhosa uthi asifumane kutata wakhe isiduko ze ubulungu beqela lesiduko esithile, lubephantsi kweso siduko. Kunjalo, isiduko yayiliqela elikhulu kunase bukhosini, yayibaluleke kuluntu olungqungileyo. Amalungu ohlukileyo esiduko esinye ayehlala kwilali ezohlukileyo kwaye elandela iinkosi ezazine zinye iziduko kunye neezinye iinkosi. Iinkokheli zeziduko ezinabalandeli abaninzi kubukhosi obuthile zazibonakalisa abalandeli abakwiqela lenkosi kwaye bethabatha inxaxheba kuzo zonke izigqibo ezichaphazela ebukhosini. Abantu abanesiduko esinye babesisizukulwana sika khokho omnye, nangona oku akuzange bubenobungqina. Amalungu anesiduko esinye ayengavumelekanga ukutshatana, kwaye umfazi wayesigcina isiduko sakhe nasemveni kokuba etshatile.

Ubu-Khosi bama Xhosa

Imizi yama Xhosa kwindawo ethile yayiphantsi kolawulo negunya lenkosi yalondawo kwindawo yonke ababehlala kuyo. Ndawo enkulu yase bukhosini yayiquka ezentlala kahle, ukubhala inkundla kunye nezemikhosi kwa nkosi. Nangona igunya ebukhosini laliphezulu kwalendlu yase bukhosini kune nkosi yodwa ngokwayo, kodwa ke inkosi yiyo eyayiphezulu, utata nalowo uphethe ebukhosini. Wayeququzelela ukuzingela, ukulima, imilo kunye nolwaluko- zonke ezi yayi yimisebenzi eyayisenziwa ekuhlaleni equka ukusetyenziswa izixhobo zetsimbi ezibukhali ezifana nemikhonto neepeki.

Zonke ezi zazisondelaniswe nehlathi kunye nesithunzi (semimoya), kunye neenkolelo zamasiko zokucoca no(kuzila) inyama, amasi, utywala, icuba kunye nokuya ocantsini. Lemisebenzi yasekuhlaleni yayiquka amadini athile okanye ukunyangwa ngamayeza. Iinyangi nabanyangi bakwa moya mandulo babesebenza nenkosi, eyayisenza imvula ngamaxesha embalela, benyanga amagorha emfazwe phambi komlo, benyanga amasimi atyaliweyo ukuqinisekisa isivuno esilungileyo, inukisa amagqwirha inyanga nezigulo kunye namashwa kuluntu nezilwanyana.

Abalandeli benkosi yayi ngamadoda awayesebenza njengama gorha emfazweni, bekhusela ubukhosi kwezinye iinkosi ezikufuphi okanye okunga qhelekanga. Izohlwayo zokufa zokubulawa okanye ubugqwirha zazibhatalwa ngeenkomo enkosini. Zonke izikhumba zengwe kunye nomxhaka zifunyanwa yinkosi, yayi yinkosi yodwa enegunya lokunxiba isikhumba sengwe (umnweba) kunye no(mxhaka).

Ngonyaka wama 1831 iGrahamstown yayikuphe okuthengiswayo okubiza £50,000 ngonyaka, apho ke I £27,000 yayenziwe ngezikhumba kunye ne £3,000 yezikhumba ezithengwe kuma Xhosa. Amaxhosa njenge nzuzo awazange afumane ezentengiso kuphela (iingubo, iintsimbi ezinxitywayo kunye nentsimbi yenkcenkce), kodwa bafumana namahashe nemipu. Abalandeli benkosi bancedisa ngeenkomo kwi (lobola) kwinkosikazi enkulu yenkosi.babengenela umsitho warhoqo ngonyaka ebukhosini, umkhosi onyangwe ngugqirha womlo (itola). Lomsitho weziqhamo zokuqala (umlibo) wawubanjwa ngaxeshanye, apho isivuno sasingcamlwa incasa khona yinkosi phambi kokuvuna emadlelweni.

Ezopolitiko kubu Khosi bama Xhosa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Nangona iinkosi zama Xhosa yayizezendlu yobukhosi bama Tshawe, oku kwakungathethi okokuba bakwe zopolitiko kwimeko zonke, maxa onke. Ubume bezopolitiko babunoku tshintsha kuxhomeke kwimeko leyo isecicini. Umzekelo ngexesha lesigulo semiphunga kunye nokubulawa kweenkomo okwalandela ngonyaka ka 1856-7, ezinye iinkosi zama Xhosa zaxhasa ubizo lwenkosi ephezulu uSarhili,olwalu phezu kwezi profetho zika Mhlakaza no Nongqawuse, sokutshabalalisa zonke iinkomo nombona, kodwa abanye abazange bavume ukwenza njalo. Abalandeli ababe ngaphazamisekanga yile nkosi inga xhaphakanga babejika ukunyaniseka kwabo, balindele inkosi engathi inamandla kwaye exhaphakileyo.

Ngokufanayo, okulungileyo, nenxaso eyaneleyo yezopolitiko nemikhosi, babenokuthabatha ubukhosi kumkhuluwa ongazalwa ngutata omnye okanye ahambe, athabathe indawo entsha benze ubukhosi obutsha obubobakhe. Ngokwesiko lwakwa Xhosa, uTshawe wathabatha ubukhosi kubhuti wakhe oli vezandlebe uCirha.

Ngenxa yesisenzo, uTshawe, indlu encinci ka Nkosiyamntu, ukususela ngoko yaba yiyo indlu elawulayo phakathi kwama Xhosa. Exesheni, nge nkulungwane ye 18th century, unyana wenkosi uPhalo uRharhabe wanqumla umlabo iKei river nabalandeli bakhe emveni kokulwa nomkhosi ka bhuti wakhe oli vezandlebe (half-brother) uGcaleka, owaye yindlalifa yase bukhosini. uRharhabe waseka ubukhosi bakhe kwintaba i-Amabele, nama Xhosa ase Ciskei aze aziwa ngokokuba ngama Rharhabe, igama lokuzingca elisaziwayo nakule mihla.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie