Iminyaka ye Kuboshwa kwa Mengameli Mandela kusho Benjamin Pogrund

A Symbol of Anti-Apartheid – Umfanekiso wekungabikho kwe Lubandlululo

©Eric Miller

Labo labamhlophe lebebaphetse iNingizimu Afrika Nelson Mandela bekayintfo lebebayikhohliwe. Loku kwaba yindlela mhlabawonkhe: ngemnyaka wekucala welicala lase Rivonia Liphephandzaba le New York Times lakhokha imibiko leminingi lapho khona ligama la Mandela belivela; ngemnyaka lolandzelako, kwavela kanye, lapho kwakungenca ya Winnie Mandela.

Wachubeka ngekutimisela kutsi agcizelele ekugcineni ligama lakhe liphila, futsi ngekwenta njalo kwabhebhedlela kukwata kubo Gadzi bemaPhoyisa. Ngalesinye sikhatsi, sincumo sabonakala sitsetfwse Baholi belicembu le Congress Alliance kwentela kunakwa sive nga Mandela: emandla akhe abonwa kwase loko kumenta umbusi lotsandvwa bantfu.

Kwatsatsa sikhatsi kodvwa ke ligama lakhe lase livela phambili futsi lavelela kumelela umzabalazo welubandlululo. Loku kwativeta ngetindlela letincane letingavakali: ngalomunye Umgcibelo ngesikhatsi sasehlobo emva kwemadina ngashayela ngaya ePosini Lelikhulu eGoli ngiyotfumela incwadzi lebeyiya kuMandela ejele.

Indvodza yemuntfu lomnyama beyisebenta lapho etafuleni ngaphambili. Abekhatsele futsi eva kushisa futsi agabance kulelitafula, inhloko yakhe icamele emikhonweni yakhe. Ngamunika lencwadzi, wayinika lolokuyibuka kwekudzineka — kepha, watsi nakabona leligama, wavuka ngekushesha. Wahlala wacondza, emehlo akhe akhatimula, wanginika Lusito lolujabulisako.

Mandela’s Importance Realised – Bumcoka ba Mandela Babonwa

Kwatsi ngemunyaka wa 1970 nekucala kwa 1980 hulumende welubandlululo wacala wahlahla emehlo ngebumcoka ba Mandela ngekuba nguMholi. Watsi nakachubeka akhula lo hulumende wacala kwesaba kutso utoshonela ejele bese uba yintfo lefele kukholwa kusibonelo semhlabawonkhe ngemphikiswano ye lubandlululo.

Tivumelwano tentiwa kuye ngekukhululwa kwakhe ngumshanawakhe, Sikhulu Paramount Kaiser Matanzima, kanye na Johan Coetzee wabo Gadzi bema Phoyisa. Lesimo bekukutsi Mandela kumele avume kutsi utohamba eNingizimu Afrika ayohlala eTranskei, lelekutsiwa yi nkhululeko ye Bantustan lebeyiholwa ngu Matanzima, Mandela akazange avuma.

Mandela kanye nalabanye lasihlanu lekasebenta nabo, lebesandzole kakhulu emphilweni yakhe batfunyelwa eRobben Island etimeni letilula tase jele lase Pollsmoor endzaweni lenkhulu. Kusuka ekucaleni kwa 1985, ikhebhini yetikhonti yacala kumuvakashela ngemihlangano lengatiwa futsi bekatsatfwa ayobona uMengameli P.W. Botha.

Friends Visit in Pollsmoor – Bangani Bavasha ePollsmoor

Emva kweminyaka yekufaka ticelo letibhaliwe ngabese ngiyavunyelwa kutsi ngimuvakashele imizuzu lemashumi lamane nesihlanu. Ngatjelwa kutsi ngiyavunyelwa kutsi ngimbone njengemngani, hhayi njengentsatseli, futsi ngenta sivumelwano kutsi angeke ngibhale ngako. Loko kwabandzima kimi, futsi kwadzinga ngiphindze ngente lengisebenta naye eRand Daily Mail kutsi akuvume loko.

Ngakhona kwati liwada lelingugadzi la Mandela, Umvikeli Lomkhulu James Gregory. Ekuhambeni kweminyaka, kucala nge Robben Island, nkosikazi wami, Anne, kanye nami satfumela liphasela lekudla kwetibiliboco lokuya ku Mandela kwa Khisimusi.

Lapho, ngemnyaka munye, ngatjelwa kutsi kutophiwa natotonkhe tiboshwa lebetikhona kule Island. Ngashayela emahhovisini lamakhulu elijele kanye nemphatsi wabo ngentela kubanesiciniseko. ʹUsho kutsi umangitfumela liphakethe lemaswidi lelikhilogremi linye nitopha tonkhe letiboshwa letiyinkhulungwane yinye nemakhulu lamane? Ngabuta.

ʹYebo,ʹ kwaba yimphendvulo leyo. Loko bekungenangcondvo kepha esikhundleni, kusuka lapho, savunyelwa kutfumela imali lebeyifakwa ebhange laMandela lasejele. Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi, senta kona loko kulabo bebasebenta na Mandela, Walter Sisulu kanye na Govan Mbeki.

Ngatjelwa kutsi, nga Khisimusi, bebakhona kubhala tintfo tekudla labakudzingako bese emawada ayahamba aya etitolo letidvute ayobatsengela. Ngemaholidi etfu emnyaka eKapa sashayela saya ejele ePollsmoor sayoshiya tipho. Ngabhekana na Gregory ngako besekahlala akahle futsi alusito.

Surreal Conversations – Tinkhulumo Letimaphupho

Ekhaya lelise Goli ngalomunye Umgcibelo ekuseni, Winnie washaya asesimeni lesibutsakatsaka: abetjelwe kutsi Mandela unesifo semdlavuza ngako abefuna mine ngizame kutfola kahle ngaletinsolo ngekushesha. Ngashayela ePollsmoor ngatfola Gregory. Wangitjela kutsi akusilo njenani liciniso lelo; abemubonile Mandela umzuzwana ngaphambili futsi wambona aphilile futsi bekanesidlo sasekuseni lesihle.

Gregory wangicela kutsi ngatise Winnie loko nekutsi kubuhlungu kutsi kunebantfu labahambisa tindzaba letinje. Ngamubonga ngase ngitsi ngicela endlulise tifiso letinhle ku mnumzane Mandela yena watsi, utowenta njalo.

Bekuliphupho futsi bekulukhuni kutsemba kutsi bengikhuluma neliwada ngesiboshwa selive lesingunombolo lesekucaleni. Ngabeka lucingo phansi ngase ngitsi ku Anne, ʹLena nguyinye yetinkhulumo telucingo letingaphili lengake ngabanato.’

Trial Visit – Kuvakasha Lokusivivinyo

Nangilungisela kuvakashela Mandela ngenta sincumo kutsi ngito noma yini lengiyifunako futsi angeke ngivumele umtsetfosisekelo. Ngafakwa ejele lase Pollsmoor futsi ngamukelwa ngu Gregory: watsi ngendlela lebajabule ngayo bonkhe ngalokuvakashelwa. Ngase ngiyabona kutsi lokwami kuvakasha kwesivivinyo — tati betifuna kubona kutsi kutokwentekani ngoba eminyakeni leminingi ngemalunga emindeni kuphela lebekavunyelwa kutobona Mandela.

Ngatfuka futsi ngaphumisela ngaphandle kutsi yebo ngitochubeka nanoma nguyiphi imitsetfo lekhona. Ungabi nenkinga, kwasho Gregory; lendvodza ‘lendzala beyati kutsi yini levunyelwako futsi besingakavumeleki kukhuluma ngesimo setiboshwa. Kwaba sikhatsi lesibalulekile emphilweni yami: ngahlala esitulweni phambi kwengilasi lenkhulu kwase kungena Nelson Mandela, tandla takhe betisetulu abe abingelela.

Wahlala kulelelinye lisayidi laleligilasi sase siyakhuluma simemetelana, sinika emavi etfu kuphakama. Bekanetimvu enhloko kantsi nebuso bakhe besebunemalayini. Kepha wema futsi wabukeka acinile njengalesikhatsi ngimbona ngaphambilini, ngetulu kweminyaka lemibili phambilini. Ngashaywa kutimisela kwakhe.

Lena ngulendvodza leyabeketela yaphindze yabanemandla yalungenela nalomsebenti. Ukhuluma ngelwati. Abelungile ku Gregory kantsi na Gregory abekahle nakuye, naloku abesiboshwa, bekuyindvodza lephetse.

Mandela’s Improved Status – Simo sa Mandela Lesatfutfukiswa

Abelungise umbhalo wetihloko lebesitokhuluma ngako emhlanganweni wetfu: abefuna mine ngisite ekukhanyiseni indlela yemfundvo yebantfwabakhe bemantfombatana lababili, njengoba bekafuna kwati ngendlela yebangani bakudzala.

Wangicela kutsi ngitjele Dokotela Harold Seftel, losati kumitsi yase Afrika, lakamati nabasebantfwabesikolwa ku Nyuvesi yase Witwatersrand, lobevame kulalela inkhulumo yakhe ya onkhe malanga yemphilo emsakatweni. Kwakumele ngitjele Seftel kutsi Mandela bekalandzela imiyalo yakhe nekutsi wehlisile ekutsatseni luswayi.

Bekulive lelincane ngoba akusiko nje kutsi ngati Harold Seftel, kepha na dzadze wakhe, Dolly Levine, bekangumungani losondzele lowatiswa Anne kany nami — iʹshidduch’ ku Yiddish (indlela yekuhlanganisa bantfu lababili) — futsi unakekela indlela lelungela umshado wetfu kanye nebantfwabetfu.

Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi, ngashayela Seftel ngemlayeto wa Mandela wabese uyangibonga ngenjabulo, ʹKusibusiso unginika Sibusiso.’ Mandela wangicela kutsi ngimuvakashele phindze, sikhatsi lesiphindziwe, kepha watsi angeke angibone ngaphandle nakukhona Anne ngite naye.

Bebangakaze babonana — sashada emva kwekuboshwa kwakhe — kepha watsi unesitfombe sa Anne ebondzeni leseli yakhe. Mine na Anne saya sayomvakashela, ngenyanga yaBhimbidvwane nga 1986, emaviki lambalwa singakayi eBritain, futsi ngalesisikhatsi kuvunyelwa kwa Mandela besekukaliwe.

Besinemuntfu lesimtsintsako kulelihhovisi kanye na kholoneli welijele lobekahlala ngemuva kwelitafula atsatsa imibhalo lobekunguyena aphetse. Ngalesisikhatsi bekumele nginike lengikubhalile kusenesikhatsi khona ngingatobhala ngaloluvakasho.

Mandela is Released – Mandela uyakhululwa

Hulumende we Ningizimu Afrikawetfula ngaleSihlanu kutsi Mandela utokhululwa ngelilanga lelilandzelako. Ngemgcibelo, kwadzingeka kutsi nginake kulungisa lesitulo esitolo lesincane setintfo takadzeni eceleni kwasekhaya eWest Hampstead, London.

Ngangena ngase ngitsi ngebuhle kulomnikati, ‘Tindzaba letimnandzi kutsi Nelson Mandela uyakhululwa namuhla.’ Wavele wangibuka nje, Usiphekuli. Kumele akhungwe.’ Kwaba sikhatsi lesibi kepha kwangakhombisi kulichinga lelatiwako ku British ngaleso sikhatsi. ngacitsa lilanga lami lebelisele ku Mabonakudze we Sky, wanika kuchaza ngaletitfombe letinhle letikhokhwe ngaphandle kwelijele le Victor Vester endzaweni yasemakhaya kanye naseku Masheni kwase dolobheni lase Kapa lapho khona Mandela akhuluma nesicumbi lesitinkhulungwane.

Translated by Phindile Malotana