Unlike clay pots and other durable items such as beads and artefacts made from stone or metal, wood seldom survives in archaeological contexts. In South Africa, circumstantial evidence such as the discovery of stone spear tips and bored stones have been cited as examples of the use among Stone Age communities of hafted spears and wooden digging sticks, indicating that the practice of working in wood predates the adoption of iron tools to fashion household artefacts such as meat platters and vessels capable of holding liquids such as milk. In Limpopo Province, charred and other remains at Mapungubwe and K2 (Bambandyanalo), Southern Africa’s first state complex which flourished from about AD 1220 to 1300, afford evidence of cereal stamping blocks and the construction of doors and other architectural features made from wood such as steps and floors.
Because there is virtually no surviving evidence prior to the 19th century of the production of carved household artefacts, it is difficult to know precisely when and why specialist artisans developed wood-working skills to serve the daily needs of local communities. It was only after the arrival in South Africa of missionaries and traders that comments on the production of skilled carvers began to emerge. In the past, many of these specialists bartered household artefacts in exchange for grain or items such as iron tools produced by other skilled artisans. Some became virtuoso carvers who worked for both indigenous leaders and external markets.