Umshado Emphakathini wamaTswana

Uhlelo Lomshado

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngokuvamile umfazi wokuqala womuntu wakhethwa kuye; uma engakwazi ukukhokhela abangaphezu kweyodwa, wakhetha abanye. Phakathi kwamaqembu ahloniphekile anempahla eningi, abafazi ababenabo abahlobene nabo babekhethwa. Othandekayo wayenendodakazi yomfowabo kanina, indodakazi kadadewenu, nendodakazi yomfowabo kayise. Ukushada ngalokhu kokugcina kwakusho ukuthi umcebo womakoti wayezohlala emgodini owaba nawo nobaba kayise nomfowabo.

Imishado yayivame ukuhlelwa yiqembu, indoda yomuntu ethatha isinyathelo. Ingane yokuhlukumezeka isetshenziselwa ukujwayela, kodwa ayisasetshenziswa. Ingxenye ebalulekile yokuhlukumezeka kwaba ukudluliswa kwengcebo yomakoti (bogadi) emndenini womyeni kuya kumakoti. Umshado wawusebenza kuphela lapho i-bogadi ekhokhwa. Lokhu kubonisa ukudluliselwa kokuzala komfazi (hhayi ukuthenga owesifazane) kumalungu omyeni wakhe. Yingakho kuphela izingane ezazithwala zaba yingxenye yeqembu lakhe. Uma umfazi engaphumeleli ukukhiqiza ingane, iqembu lakhe ladingeka limukele elinye lamadadewabo noma lithumele udade owengeziwe, noma ubuyele i-bogadi. I-bogadi yayiyizinkomo eziningi, nakuba ezinye ze-Tswana (Ngwaketse kanye ne-Kwena ikakhulukazi) zazihlanganisa nezimvu.

Namuhla, lapho umshado wesigodlo udluliselwa, ukukhokhwa kwemali nezinkomo kuhlanganisiwe kuvunyelwe amaqembu. Inani lemfuyo lalingavulwa ukuxoxisana kodwa lanconywa ngabantu bowesifazane; umndeni womlobokazi wawungasho lutho kulolu daba ngaphandle kokubhikisha uma bekholelwa ukuthi umyeni womyeni angakwazi ukunikeza ngaphezulu. Inkokhelo yayivame ukufakwa esitokisini esisodwa lapho umakoti ehlala nomyeni wakhe. Izilwane (njalo ziyizinombolo) zazihlanganiswe nguyise womkhwenyana owacela abafowabo ukuba banikele. Wayelindele isilwane esisodwa kumalume womama womama, ngoba izinkomo ezamukelwa udadewabo (umama womyeni) bezisetshenziselwe ukuthola umkakhe. Izinkomo zathunyelwa endlini kababa womfelokazi, lapho zihlala khona isikhathi sikayise. Ngemva kokuba sebeyande, uyise womlobokazi wabatshela phakathi komama wakhe nomngane womakoti, bonke abazobe becela ukuba babambe iqhaza kumfowabo womlobokazi womlobokazi. Umalumekazi womama womama nomfowabo omdala babemangalelwa ngokukhethekile ngezinkomo ezitholwa njengebhodi lakhe.

Isithembu

Ngenkathi indoda inamakhosi angaphezu kweyodwa, umfazi ngamunye wayenelungelo lokwakha izindlu zakhe, izindlu, izinkomo, nezitsha zangaphakathi ezisetshenziselwa yena nabantwana bakhe. Kodwa-ke, owesifazane othunyelwe ukuba athathe umfazi owashona engenamntwana, noma ukuzala abantwana umfazi oyinyumba, wangena esitokisini somfazi ayewuthatha isikhundla sakhe. Ekufeni kowesifazane osekhulile izinsiza ze-lapa zakhe zazuzwa njengezingane zakhe, abafazi bezithembu babevame ukubekwe eceleni kokuhlukumezeka (hhayi umshado), iqiniso elashiya isimo esivulwe ukuphikisana, ikakhulukazi emva kokufa komyeni.

Umfazi wokuqala u-betrothed wayehloswe ukuba abe ophezulu kakhulu, nendodana yakhe endala indlalifa yesimo kanye nempahla engekho eyakhiwe kayise. Noma kunjalo izingxabano phezu kwesimo ngokuvamile zilandelwa ukufa komuntu onamandla njengoba amadodana akhe okuqala ngamakhosikazi akhe efuna ilungelo lokuba indlalifa eyinhloko. Lapho umbuso wobandlululo ubanika amandla akhethekile emakhosini, ezinye izazi ze-anthropologists zathola ukuthi zithintekile kulezi zingxabano, ngisho nasenkantolo, njengabantu abaphila ilungelo lokuphumelela obaba babo ekubuseni futhi bacela abathandekayo ukuba baqinisekise ukuthi babe ngamadodana okuqala wabafazi abadala.

Translated by Nsika Khoza