Umlandu wamaTsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukuthuthukisa iNhlanga

Izikhulumi zaseTsonga zokuqala zangena eTransvaal yangaphambili cishe zenza kanjalo phakathi nekhulu le-18. Babengabadayisi abahamba phambili abalandela imifula yasemaphandleni, lapho bafaka khona indwangu nobuhlalu bezinyo lwendlovu, ithusi nosawoti. Ngasekuqaleni kwawo-1820, bajoyina ama-co-lingu abaxoshwa ogwini labagibeli be-Nguni. Ngalesi sikhathi iTsonga ehlala ethafeni elisogwini yakha isigaba esihlukumezekile sezilimi ezihlobene nezilimi ezabelane namasiko ambalwa ahlukanisayo kodwa zazingekho ubunikazi obubodwa. Amaqembu abo amancane anganikeza ukuphikisana okulinganiselwe ku-Nguni ehlasela.

Iqembu lokugcina le-Nguni ukuza kule ndawo kwakuyi-insali yebutho lakwaNdwandwe, ngaphansi kweShoshangane, elalibhekene ne-Shaka kanye ne-Zulu impis emagqumeni aseMhlatuze, eduze nosuku lwe-Ulundi. Ababaleki bahlala emfuleni iTembe, eningizimu-mpumalanga ye-Swaziland namhlanje, kodwa kungakabiphi bavula iTonga, bathuthele enyakatho ngesihluthulelo esifundazweni saseLimpopo. Ukuthula okungahle kwenzeke njengoba uNdwandwe (noma uShangaan) eqala ukufaka izikhulumi zesiTsonga ezikhundleni zabo.

Shoshangane

Umbuso wamaNguni umngcele osenyakatho weZululand wawuvusa intukuthelo kuZulu, okwakhiwa njengabahlali abaphikisana nezombusazwe futhi besongela indlela ebalulekile yokuhweba eya eLourenço Marques (manje eyiMaputo). Uhambo olusha lweZulu lwathunyelwa enyakatho ngo-1833 ukuhlasela uSshangane nokujezisa abalingani bakhe. Bathatha uLourenço Marques futhi babethela umbusi wedolobha ogwini. Ngesikhathi ebhekene nokubuyiswa kwalesiZulu, uShoshangane nabalandeli bakhe babaleka endaweni yabo yokuhlala eLimpopo Valley. Baqhubekela eMfuleni iZambezi ngaphambi kokuya eningizimu ukuyohlala eMospa (Zimbabwe).

Kusuka lapha uShoshangane waqala ukunqoba futhi ahlanganisa uNandi okhuluma isiNgisi. Esebenzisa amandla akhe akhulisiwe, waqinisa amandla akhe phezu kwendawo phakathi koMfula iZambezi noDelagoa Bay. Ngokushesha umbuso waseGaza, ohlonishwa umkhulu kaShoshangane owayehlala esifundeni saseMkuze saseZululand, waqala ukuphuma emaphethelweni asempumalanga ye-escarpment nasesiqhingini se-steamy esethafeni elisogwini. Kwakukhona isikhathi sokuthula, ngesikhathi uNdwandwe waseningizimu kanye neTsonga, ababekade behlala kule ndawo emakhulwini eminyaka, baqhubekele phambili. Lokhu kwaqina emva kuka-1838 lapho amasosha amaningi kaS Shoshangane efa ngesifo sengculazi, futhi wabuyela e-Valley of Limpopo.

Ibutho lakhe labhubhisa le ndawo, njengoba ejezisa izitha zakhe, abesifazane nabantwana abagqilaziwe, futhi befuna izinkokhelo ezinzima zentela. Le mpikiswano yahlukanisa imifudlana emibili yababaleki esuka ethafeni elisogwini. I-Nkuna namanye amaqembu amancane ashukumisela entshonalanga eceleni koMfula i-Olifants ukuze azibeke ngaphansi kwezizwe ezikhuluma isiSuthu, Kaha noLovedu, entshonalanga ye-Lowveld.

Iqembu leSibili Lababaleki

Umkhumbi wesibili wababaleki (uMaluleke, uBaloyi, uTshauke noSono) ulandele eLimpopo ukuzohlala eMfuleni weLevubu (Pafuri) noma ezindaweni eziphansi ukuya empumalanga yeSoutpansberg naseDrakensberg. Amaqembu amancane ababaleki agcina izikhulu zawo ngokuhlala ezindaweni ezingenasidingo, ezindaweni ezinobungozi be-malaria kodwa, uma befisa ukuhlala ezindaweni eziphakeme kakhulu, kufanele bafune ukuvikelwa kwabaholi njengezilimi ezikhuluma isiSuthu, iModjadji, uPodile noMaake eningizimu noma I-Pafuri ekhuluma nge-Venda enyakatho. Ngabangu-1850 abafuduka baseTsonga bahlala ekhaya emagqumeni aseSelpenberg eSoutpansberg lapho umdabu wasePutukezi, uJooo Albasini, eyakha umbuso wakhe ngaphandle kwemali eyenziwe ngokudayiswa kwezigqila kanye nendlovu.

Ngesikhathi ababaleki baseTsonga bangaphakathi beqala ukwakha imiphakathi emincane, abahlobo babo ogwini kwakudingeka balwe nezingxabano ezombusazwe eziqhubekayo. Ngo-1858 Shoshangane wafa futhi umbuso waqala ukuhlakazeka njengoba amadodana akhe, uMizila noMawewe, bevale izimpondo phezu kwesihlalo sobukhosi. U-Shoshangane ubize uMizila njengomlandeli, uMawewe owaphikisa; lokhu kwaholela eminyakeni engaba ngu-10 yokulwa okuqhubekayo. Esizwa yi-Albasini nabathengisi eLourenço Marques, uMzila wazuza kakhulu.

UMawewe wabalekela eSwaziland, lapho efuna usizo lweNkosi uNksz Mswati, ekugcineni wahlala enyakatho yeSwaziland emngceleni neGazaland. I-Muzila ishintshe indawo yaseGaza emuva kokuphepha eMospa, ishiya i-Delagoa Bay hinterland ingavimbelwe. Ngonyaka ubusika i-Swazi iqede ukuhlasela okubhubhisayo endaweni. Ngo-1884 uMizila wafa kanye nendodana yakhe, uGungunyana, yaphumelela. Inkosi entsha yazama ngokushesha ukuvuselela ukulawula phansi eGazaland. Ngo-1889 wathuthela inhloko-dolobha yakhe eLimpopo esezansi, eqoqa izindawo eziseningizimu zombuso wakhe. Ukuphazanyiswa okuqhubekayo kwaqala ingxenyana entsha yokufuduka eya eTransvaal futhi yaletha iGungunyana ukuba ingqubuzana namaPutukezi.

Ukufuduka Kwamanye Amazwe

©Dr Peter Magubane
Njengoba ichweba lemvelo lakwaWitwatersrand, uLourenço Marques wayekhulile nezinsimu zegolide ezasanda kutholakala. Lokhu kwanikeza amaPutukezi isifiso kanye nezindlela zokwenza ukulawula ngeningizimu yeMozambique; ngo-1895 uhambo oluvela eLisbon lwahlukumeza uGungunyana futhi lwamuyisa e-Azores. Indodana yakhe, uThulilahanxi, owayeseyingane, kanye nombuso, uMpisane, wabaleka eRiphabhuliki yaseTransvaal futhi wahlala enyakatho yoMfula iSabi ngasezintabeni zezintaba zaseDrakensberg, esifundeni samanje saseMhala.

Ukuchotshozwa kweGaza kwaqedwa eminyakeni emibili kamuva lapho ukuvukela okuholwa omunye wabaphathi bakaGungunyana kwakunqotshwe. Lokhu kwaqala ingxenyana entsha yokuthuthela kwamanye amazwe njengoba izinsalela zombuso waseGaza zawela umngcele futhi zangena eTransvaal. Ngonyaka we-1910 uMpisane walahla ubukhosi bakhe ngoThulilahanxi, owaziwa ngumkhandlu womndeni njengendlalifa ngokungabikho kwe-Buyisonto, owayengumlandeli ohlonishwayo eGungunyana. Ngo-1922 Buyisonto waphuma ekuthunjweni futhi wathuthela eMhala ukuba abe umholi wenzalo yobukhosi obudala baseGaza.

Ngalesi sikhathi izikhulumi zaseTsonga zakha cishe amaphesenti amane esamba seNingizimu Afrika. E-Transvaal bahlala ezindaweni ezihlukene. Enyakatho, izinduna ezinkulu, ezifana ne-Xikundu, Mhinga, Xigalo kanye noMakuleke, zinezindawo ezihlala eceleni noma eduze neKruger National Park. Ngaphezulu eningizimu, imiphakathi ehlakazekile yazama ukuhlala e-Lowveld. Eduze emithonjeni yamanzi aseLevubu ne-Small Letaba, abaguqayo abangamaKristu bahlala emapulazini aseSwitzerland Mission eValdezia, e-Elim naseKurulen, izingane zabo eziya eKomana College.

Eningizimu, iNkuna namaqembu amancane ahlala emaphethelweni e-Escarpment. Inzalo yabakwaNgulu abakhuluma isiNguni, nabafazi babo nabalandeli babo abakhuluma ngesiTsonga, bahlala phakathi kwe-Acornhoek-Bushbuckridge naseningizimu ekupheleni kweKruger Park. Mhlawumbe iqembu elikhulu kunazo zonke lamaSongonga-izikhulumi lalisendaweni yaseNgwavuma-Ubombo enyakatho yeZululand. Lawa ayeyizinzalo zeMaputo (Mabudhu ngesiZulu), umbuso wayo wawunqunywa kabili ngasemngceleni ophakathi kweNingizimu Afrika neMozambique. Ngokungafani neTonga e-Transvaal, babenezihlobo ezinzulu neZulu.

Translated by Nsika Khoza