Ukuthwasiswa kwamaNdebele kanye Nokudlulela Ebudaleni

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukuthwasa Phakathi Kwabesilisa Nabesifazane

Ukuqaliswa kusekhona phakathi kokubili besilisa nabesifazane emphakathini wesiNdebele, ukubeka uphawu lokusukela ebuntwaneni ukuya esimweni somuntu omdala. Ekuphethweni kwemikhosi, lowo oqalisiwe uvunyelwe ukuba ahlanganyele ngokocansi futhi aqale inqubo eqhubekayo yokuzibandakanya nomshado. Umsebenzi obalulekile wokuqala ukuhlanganisa amaqembu obudala ndawonye, ​​nokuhlukanisa nakwezinye izigaba.

Abantu abaqalayo (abakhethua) bahlatshwa umxhwele ukuhlanganisa nabanye abantu abaye bahamba ngenqubo yokuqalisa. Ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuphela kanye nokuzikhethela kokuqala, i-abakhethua iyalwelwa ukuba ingabonakali kubafana abangabonwanga ukuthi kwenzekani ngesikhathi sokuhlanganiswa ekufakweni kokufakwa (umphadu). Ngenqubo yokuqalwa, abesilisa nabesifazane badluliselwa ekutheni bendabuko kanye nezimfihlakalo ezijulile zeqembu. Lolu lwazi ludluliselwa kusuka esizukulwaneni esisodwa sabaqashi kuya kwesinye, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukudluliswa kolwazi kugcinwa, futhi ukubambisana kwamasiko kweqembu kwaqiniswa.

Ukuthwasiswa Kwamadoda

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ukuqala kwamadoda (i-wela noma i-ingoma) kuqhutshwa phakathi kweNdzundza Ndebele cishe njalo eminyakeni emine, kanti abafana bavame ukuba neminyaka engu-15 kuya kwengu-18 ubudala. Amagama abo kufanele abhaliswe nenkosi enkulu (inkosi). Uma lokhu sekuqedile futhi induna ibeke usuku, izigidi zokuqala ziyi-headband (i-babyband) utshani, okubonisa ukuthi uyisiqalo sokulungiselela. Ngalesi sigaba, wenza imisebenzi ehlukahlukene yemikhuba yamasonto amathathu.

Ngaphambi kokushiya indawo yokuhlala yesikhulu, lapho i-abakhethua evela emakhaya ahlangana khona, ngamunye unikezwa i-isititimba (loincloth, evela e-Afrikaans stertriem), eyenziwe ngabobakhulu babo esikhumbeni lesilwane, kanye nesikhumba esisodwa, esivamile ukuthi ukuqalisa ngokuvamile kuqhutshwa ngesikhathi sebandayo ebusika.

Endlini yokuhlala, abaqalayo baqhuba imikhosi, ngokuzenzekelayo baxoxisane nokufana kwabo. Emva kwalokhu, bayiswa emaphoyiseni enkomo. Ekuntwaneni kokusa, bavusa futhi bahlwithwa endaweni engcwele emfuleni oseduze. Bahlakazeka eceleni kwebhange, futhi basokwa. Kusukela lapha kumele bawele umfula (ukuwela) futhi bahambe ngamaso ahlaselwe phansi lapho behambela ezindaweni zokuhlala ezihlukene, ngokuya emzaneni wabo ovela kuwo. Ama-initiates ahlala emagumbini, ejulile ehlathini, izinyanga ezimbili, efundiswa ngendlala yeqembu kanye nemithwalo yabo yemfanelo, imisebenzi kanye namalungelo njengamadoda.

Ngemuva kwesikhathi sabo sokuhlukaniswa, amadili alungiswa emakhaya ka-abakhethua, futhi izipho abazithola kumalungu omndeni, ukugubha ukutholakala kwamadoda, kuboniswa. Lapho i-abakhethua ishiya umkhonto, ihlelwe kahle ngezingubo zokugqoka nezingubo ababezigqoke ngesikhathi sokuqala, okubonisa ukuqedwa kwemikhuba yabo yokuhamba nokuvalwa kwesahluko empilweni yabo. Emva kwalokhu, babuyela ekushoneni kwelanga endlini yokuhlala, begqoke izigqoko ezintsha, ngamehlo abo behlehlisiwe ekuboniseni ukuthobeka, okufana nokuhamba lapho behamba khona. Ngaphansi kwezingubo zabo abafana bahamba ngaphandle kwe-isititimba, efanekisela ubuntu.

Ngalobo busuku balala endaweni evulekile futhi kusihlwa ngakusasa ekuseni bonke abaqalayo bahanjiswe esidlangalaleni (ukupalala) futhi bathole ngokomthetho amagama abo ombuso avela kumphathi. Emva kwalokhu, amalungu eqembu abuyele emakhaya abo kanye nemikhosi emide. Isigaba esilandelayo kulezi zinsuku zivuleka njengoba inqubo yokubandakanya kanye nomshado kucatshangwa, ngesikhathi lapho bavunyelwe ukuba bahlanganyele ekuziphatheni kocansi okuvinjelwe.

Ukuthwasiswa Kwabesifazane

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ukuqalwa kwamakhosikazi (iqhude noma ukuthobeka) akubuhlungu kakhulu kunokuqalwa kwabantu, njengoba kungekho clitoridectomy noma izidumbu zomzimba ezenziwa. Inqubo iqala lapho intombazane ifinyelele ekukhuleni, iqala ekuseni ngaphambi kokuqala kwenyanga, lapho amantombazane ehlanjululwa behamba futhi ejwayele ukubuyela emvelweni, ngokuba zonke izinwele emzimbeni wazo zihlanjululwe. Ngamunye uqala ukuhambela iziqondiso ezikhethiwe - amantombazane asebekhulile nabesifazane asebekhulile.

Lapho nje amantombazane ekulungele, lonke usuku luqedile ukucula nokudansa ngokuhambisana nesebenzisa i-drum-like, okuvela kuyo umsindo ozwakalayo. Kusihlwa, amantombazane abuthana nxazonke zomlilo, egqoke ingubo eyanikezwa ukuqala, kuyilapho iziqondiso zihlanjululwa zezintambo. Bahlabelela izingoma ngaphambi kokuba baqale ukuhlukumezeka nokuthuka ngokumelene nabesilisa, umqondo wesitho sobulili besilisa nabesilisa, nabesifazane abangazange baqaliswe. Lokhu kuhlukunyezwa kwamasiko kuqhubeka kulo lonke ubusuku.

Ekuseni ekuseni ngakusasa, ama-initiates kanye neziqondiso zabo baya emfuleni, lapho abakuqala bahlanza khona, ngemuva kwalokho babuyela emizini yabo. Ngosuku olulandelayo umkhosi ugcinwe futhi uqale uvuselelwe futhi. Wabe esengena eseceleni ekamelweni elakhiwe ngokukhethekile ekhaya lakhe. Ezikhathini zangaphambili isikhathi sokubanjwa kwaba izinyanga ezintathu, kodwa namuhla, ngezidingo zokufunda nokuqashwa, sekuye kwaphela inyanga eyodwa.

Ngalesi sikhathi, oqalayo uthola imfundo evela kumhlahlandlela wakhe. Ubuye uvakashelwe yizinkhulukazi zendlu, abayifundisa ngempahla kanye namasiko, kanye nemisebenzi yakhe kanye nemithwalo yemfanelo. Iphuzu eliyinhloko lokuqalwa, noma kunjalo, ukufundisa ukuqala emisebenzini nemikhuba yokwenza ikhaya. Ngesikhatsi sakhe sokuhlukaniswa, akavumelekile ukuba akhulume noma abone noma yiyiphi indoda, ngakho-ke wenza imisebenzi yasekhaya efundiswa ngesikhathi sokuqala ebusuku noma ekuseni.

Ekupheleni kwalesi sivumelwano, i-initiate ithathwa emfuleni ukuze ihlanzwe okokugcina. Isigqoko sakhe sokuqala kanye nezingubo zishiswa, ezifanekisela 'ukufa' kwentombazane. Unikwa i-isphephetu, i-stiff beaded apron, njengesibonakaliso sokukhuphuka kwakhe kusukela ebantwaneni kuya ebubini. Njengokuqala komuntu isimo esishintshile sokuqala sigubha ngokudla komphakathi ngokulandelana emakhaya abo bonke amantombazane abaqala ukuqala. Lesi yisikhathi senjabulo, lapho abesifazane abasanda kuqaliswa bakwazi ukudlala ngothando futhi bakhangele umyeni ongase abe khona.

Translated by Nsika Khoza