Izinyosi Nokuqhola

©Marinda Louw
Izinyosi 'zidumile' ngobusi bazo (kanye neminye imikhiqizo) ukuthi zikhiqiza. Kodwa kuye kwaba nokuqwashisa okwandayo kwezinyosi ezibalulekile ezinikezwa izitshalo zokuvotela. Inani lezinyosi zezinyosi njengama-pollinator lingase lidlule kakhulu inani labo abakhiqizi bezinyosi.

ENingizimu Afrika, ezinye izitshalo zixhomeke ngokuphelele ezinyosi zokuvuna ukuze zikhiqize izithelo. Lezi zihlanganisa ama-strawberries, ama-blueberries nama-blackberries, ama-oli-izitshalo ezifana nama-sunflowers, kanye nama-alimondi namantongomane ase-macadamia. Izithelo ezinqunyiwe ezinjenge-plums, amapheya kanye nama-apula nazo zidinga izinyosi ukuvundisa izimbali zazo ukuze zithele izithelo.

Abalimi Bezinyosi Nabalimi Bezitshalo

©Louise Brodie
Ilungelo phakathi kwabafuyi bezinyosi kanye nabalimi bezitshalo zokunakekela impova lihlukile kumnikazi wendawo kuya kumnikazi wendawo kanye nohlobo lwesitshalo, kusho uDkt. Tlou Masehela weNational African Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).

Ukuze uthole ama-citrus kanye ne-canola lapho kungadingeki khona impova yezinyosi, ayikho inkokhelo evela kumlimi kumlimi wezinyosi, kodwa umlimi angase acele uhlobo oluthile lokuthola isinxephezelo kumuntu ophuza izinyosi njengoju.

Ukuze izitshalo ezincike ekuvoleni imifino njenge-apula nama-plums, umlimi ukhokha umlimi wezinyosi.
Lapho kukhona ukuhlanganiswa kwezitshalo kanye nemifino yemvelo, umlimi nomlimi wezinyosi bangase banikeze okuthile ngokushintshanisa.

Kunoma yiliphi lalezi zimo, kungenzeka kube nesivumelwano esisemthethweni (inkontileka) noma cha, kepha ngokuvamile lapho kunikezwa khona izinsizakalo zokukhokhela impova kunesivumelwano phakathi komlimi wezinyosi nomlimi wezitshalo.

Izindleko Zokuqhola Ngokwemvelo

Umanyolo wezinyosi owehla njalo eNingizimu Afrika unqanda ukukhiqizwa koju kuze kube ngu-10 kuya ku-12 kg kololoni ngonyaka. Lokhu kuncane kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa ne-USA (30 kg / ngonyaka) ne-Australia (50 kg / ngonyaka). Ngaphezu kwalokho, intengo yobusi eNingizimu Afrika iphansi futhi iqhubeka ngaphansi kwengcindezi ekuthengisweni kwezezimali ezithengi ngezinga elilinganiselwa ku-R50 / kg (2017). Futhi, lezi zintengo ziqhathanisa kabi ne-USA (R75 / kg) ne-Australia (R80 / kg).

Ukukhiqizwa okuphansi kanye nenani lezinyosi kukhulisa ukubaluleka kwezinsizakalo zokukhokhelwa kwezinyosi kubafuyi bezinyosi eNingizimu Afrika ukuze zihlale zikhona.

Ucwaningo olwenziwe nguMike Allsopp we-Agricultural Research Council (ARC) noDkt Masehela ngo-2017, luchaza ukuthi intengo yokusebenza kwempova inqunywa ukufuna nokutholakala futhi ayihlali njalo phakathi kwezitshalo nezinkathi.

E-America ekuqaleni kwezitshalo ezihluma kwentwasahlobo ezinjenge-blueberries kanye nama-almonds ukuncintisana nezinsizakalo zokuvota, okwandisa intengo yokuvota impova. Ukucwaninga kwabo kubonisa ukuthi phakathi neminyaka embalwa intengo yokuvundiswa kwe-alimondi yanda kusuka ku-$ 35 kuya ku-$ 180 ngekoloni ngayinye. Izitshalo ezikhula kamuva ngenkathi (isb. Ama-apula) zingaba nenqwaba yamakholomu atholakala ngentengo ephansi yokuvolisa impova.

Imali Yokuqhola

©Forest and Kim Starr
ENingizimu Afrika, kukhona imali ephakanyisiwe yokuvotela impova. Leli nani liyisiqondiso kodwa alitholwa yibo bonke abafuyi bezinyosi, kuye ngesitshalo. Ezinye izitshalo zidala ukucindezeleka izinyosi ezifana namajikijolo, amathanga, ama-macadamia kanye ne-litchis ngakho abanye abafuyi bezinyosi bangakhokhisa ngaphezulu izinsizakalo zokuvotela izilimo.

Imali yokuvota impola ibalwa ngefomula eyinkimbinkimbi ehlanganisa izindleko zokufaka izinyosi ezifana nezokuthutha, ushukela (ukondla) kanye nomsebenzi.

Imali ephakanyisiwe yokuvotela imvelo ngo-2018 yayiyi-R802 yeyunithi eyodwa yokuvota. Iyunithi yokuvota iminyango yinye isidleke izinsuku ezingama-21. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi i-wave of pollination. Emva kwalesi sikhathi, umlimi wezinyosi angakwazi ukukhokhisa imali efanayo noma ukuvumelanisa imali yentengo ngemuva kokuxoxisana nomlimi.

Translated by Nsika Khoza