Imvelaphi yamaTsonga Origins

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukuphuhla koHlanga

Abantu bokuqala abathetha ulwimi lwesiTsonga, kukholeleka ukuba bafika kwindawo eyayisakuba yi Transvaal ngeminyaka ye sentyuri 18. Yayingabananisi ababelandela imilambo esembindini welizwe, nalapho babenanisa ngamalaphu kunye neentsimbi ukuze bafumane i-ivory, ikopolo kunye netyiwa. Ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo 1820, kwafika nabanye abantu abathetha ilwimi efana neyabo. Bona ke babedudulwe elunxwemeni luhlanga lwabe Nguni. Ngeli xesha, amaTsonga ahlala emathafeni aselunxwemeni ayembalwa. Babenamasiko awohlukileyo kunawabanye, kodwa bengenamntu ubakhokeleyo.

Iqela labo elincinci lalingenawo amandla okuzikhusela kuhlanga lwabe Nguni. Iqela lokugqibela labeNguni lafika kule ngingqi, yayiliqaqobana lomkhosi ka Ndwandwe, phantsi kuka Shoshangane. Eli qela laloyiswe ngu Shaka kunye nomkhosi wamaZulu ngase mlanjeni iMhlathuze, kufuphi nendawo esele ibizwa nge Ulundi namhlanje. Aba baphambukeli bazinza ngakumlambo iTembe, emzantsi mpuma welizwe elibizwa nge Swaziland namhlange.

Akuzange kube kudala, oluhlanga lwajikela olu lwamaTsonga. Bafudukela emntla besingise kwiphondo lase Limpopo. Kwaye kwabakho uxolo ngethuba amaNdwandwe (okanye amaShangaan) aqalisa ukudibanisa abantu abathetha isiTsonga kwizikhundla ezithile.

Shoshangane

Isizwe samaNguni kwimida esemantla ymhlaba wakwa Zulu sasilukruqule uhlanga lwamaZulu. AmaNguni ayebonakala njengabo phikiasana namaZulu kweze politiki, kwaye ayekwakhuphisana kwindlela yonaniselwano eya eLourenço Marques (neyi Maputo namhlanje). Kwathunyelwa umkhosi omtsha ngomnyaka ka 1833 ukuba uye kuhlasela uShoshangane uze ufundise isifundo abo bahambisana naye. Bayihlutha indawo yase Lourenço Marques baze bahlabela elwandle umphathiswa wale dolophu. AmaShoshangan abhaca kwiindawo yawo esemazantsi eLimpopo. Bahlala ithutyana kumlambo iZambezi ngaphambi kokuya kuzinzav eMosapa (Zimbabwe).

Ukusukea apho uSoshangane waqala ukuthomalala baze bamanyana no Ndau othetha ulwimi lwesi Shona. Esebenzisa imikhosi yakhe eyomeleleyo, womeleza amandla akhe kule ngingqi iphakathi komlambo iZambezi kunye ne Delagoa Bay. Kancinci kancinci, ubukhosi buka Gaza, obuthiywe ngotatomkhulu ka Shoshangane owayehlala kwisithili sika Mkuze wase Zululand, baqala ukuvela ngasempuma yamawa kunye nangase hlathini olungaselunxwemeni.

Kwabakho isithuba soxolo, nalapho uNdwandwe wasemazantsi kunye nama Tsonga, nowayekulo mmandla isithuba samakhulu khulu eminyaka, aye eqiniseka ukukhuphelelana ngolwazi. Oku kwaya kuqiniseka emva komnyaka ka 1838, ngethuba amajoni ka Shoshangane ebulawa sisifo segcushuwa, waze yena wafudukela kwisithili sase Limpopo. Imikhosi yakhe ayitshabalalise le ngingqi, waze wagweba iintshaba zakhe, abafazi kunye nabantwana benziwa amakhoboka. Wanyanzelisa nokuba kukhutshwe iintlawulo. Olu ngquzulwano lwabangela ukuba amaqela amabini abhace kule ndawo ingase lunxwemeni.

AmaNkuna kunye namanye amaqela amancinci afudukela entshona ngakumlambo iOlifants. Bafikela phantsi kolawulo lweentlanga ezithetha ulwimi lwesiSotho, ama Kaha kunye nama Lovedu entshona Lowveld.

Iqela Lesibini Lababhaci

Iqela lesibini lababhaci (Maluleke, Baloyi, Tshauke and Sono) lalandela iLimpopo ukuze liye kuzinza ngakumlambo iLevubu (Pafuri) okanye kwiindawo ezise magolokongxweni ukuya entshona kwase Soutpansberg kunye nase Drakensberg. Amaqela amancinci abaphambukeli agcina iinkosi zaw ngokuya kuhlala kwiimihlaba enobungozi enezifo ze malaria. Kodwa ukuba Babenqwenela ukuhlala kwimihlaba esempilweni babenyanzeleka ukuba bafune ukhuseleko lweenkokheli ezithetha ulwimi lweSesotho ezifana no Modjadji, Podile kuny no Maake emzantsi. Okanye babenokuhlala phantsi kolawulo luka Pafuri othetha ulwimi lwes Venda Pafuri emntla.

Kwiminyaka yoo 1850 abaphambukeli bamaTsonga bazenzela ikhaya emazantsi ase Soutpansberg nalapho umhambi oli Portuguese, Joäo Albasini, wayesakha ubukumkaninobubobakhe ngengeniso awayeyifumene kwintengiso yamakhoboka kunye ne ivory.

Ngethuba abaphambukeli bama Tsonga abasembindini welizwe beqalisa ukubumba amaqela amancinci oluntu, abakubo abase lunxwemeni kwakufuneka bamelana nophehluzeliso lweze politiki. Ngomnyaka ka 1858 uShoshangane wabhubha baze ubukhosi bakhe baqala ukuphasalaka njengoko oonyana bakhe, uMuzilakunye no Mawewe balwelwa isikhundla sobukhosi. Ngaphambi kokuba alandulele eli, uSoshangane wayechonge uMuzila njenge ndlalifa, nto leyo waphikisana nay uMawewe. Oku kwakhokelela kumlo owathatha ixesha eliphantse ukufikelela kwiminyaka elishumi. Encediswa ngu Albasini kunye nabashishina base Lourenço Marques, uMuzila waluwina olu dabi.

uMawewe wabhacela eSwaziland, nalapho wacela uncedo luka Kumkani Mswati I. Ekugqibeleni wazinz emntla Swaziland kumda wase Gazaland. uMuzila wayesle ewutshintshile umbindi wesizwe seGaza saphindela kukhuseleko luka Mosapa, eshiya iDelagoa Bay hinterland ingakhuselekanga. Rhoqo ngexesha lase busikwa amaSwazi ayesiya kugqogqa aphehluzelise kwanto kule ngingqi. Ngomnyaka ka 1884 uMuzila wabhubha waze unyana wakhe, Gungunyana, wangena esihlalweni sakhe sobukhosi. Le kumkani intsha yakhawuleza yazama ukuphinda ifumane ulawulo lwamazantsi eGazaland. Ngomnyaka ka 1889 wafudusa ikomkhulu lakhe waye kulumisa emzantsi Limpopi. Ngokwenza oku wayefuna ukulawula nasemazantsi obukhosi bakhe. Kwaphinda kwabakho ukruthwa kruthwao emva kokuba iqela lesibini lababhaci lafika eTransvaal, nto leyo yabangela ungquzulwano phakathi kuka Gungunyana kunye nama Portuguese.

Niqela Elitsha Lababhaci

©Dr Peter Magubane
Emveni kokuba kufunyenwe igolide eWitwatersrand, indawo yase Lourenço Marques yaye yakhula ngakumbi. Oku kwanika amaPhuthukezi (Portuguese) umnqwena kunye namandla okulawula amazantsi elizwe lase Mozambique. Ngomnyaka ka 1895 iqela labahambi elisuka eLisbon loyisa uGungunyana waze wabhacela kwelase Azores. Unyana wakhe, uThulilamahanxi, nowayeyi mveku ngelo xesha, kunye nebambela lenkosi, uMpisane, babalekela eTransvaal Republic baze baya kuzinza kumntla womlambo iSabi okufutshane neentaba zoKhahlamba- Drankensberf, kumasipala obizwa nge Mhala namhlanje.

Ukubhukuqwa kwe Gaza kwagqitywa kwiminyaka emibini elandelayo ngethuba umlo okhokelwe ngomnye wamaphakathi ka Gungunyane wapheliswe ngokunge nalusini. Oku kwaba sisiqalo sofuduko olutsha kwabo babesa shiyekele kubukumkani be Gaza. Baye bawela imida baya kungena eTransvaal. Ngomnyaka ka 1910, uMpisane wehla esihlalweni waze wanikezela iintambo ku Thulilamahanxi. Usapho lwambona lo ka Thulilamahanxi njenge nkulu logama uBuyisonto waye selubhacweni, nowayeyindlalifa efanelekileyo ka Gungunyana. Ngomnyaka ka 1922, uBuyisonto wabuya elubhacweni waze waya kuhlala kwindawo yase Mhala nalapho waye waba yinkokheli yezizukulwane zobukumkani be Gaza eyayiwile.

Ngeli xesha ke, abantu abathetha ulwimi lwesi Tsonga babebalelwa kwinani elimalunga nee pesenti ezine zabemi belizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Kwindawo yase Transvaa babehlala kwiindawo ezithile. Babehlala emantla, nalapho kwakukho izindlu zasebukhosini, ezifana nezo zika Xikundu, Mhinga, Xigalo kunye ne Makuleke. Babehlala nakwindawo ezinamahlathi ezidibene okanye ezikufutshane nase Kruger National Park. Ukwehlela emazantsi, kwakuthe saa imizi ethe gqa gqa yayakhelwe kwimihlaba ese Lowveld. Kufutshane nemilambo ye Levubu kunye ne Small Letaba, amaKrestu ayehlala kwiifama zee Swiss Mission kwiindawo zase Valdezia, Elim kunye nase Kurulen. Abantwana babo babehamba isikolo esibhiyozelwayo esibizwa nge Lemana College.

Lee emazantsi mpela, uhlanga lwama Nkuna kunye namanye amaqela ayehlala ngasendaweni engamawa. Izizukulwana zama Shangaan ezithetha ulwimi lwesi Nguni, kunye nabafazi babo abathetha ulwimi lwesi Tsonga nabanye nje ababelandela, bahlala kumhlaba ophakathi kwe Acornhoek-Bushbuckridge kunye nasekupheleni kwamazantsi e Kruger Park. Kungenzeka ukuba elona qela likhulu labantu abathetha ulwimi lwesi Tsonga lwalukwindawo yase Ngwavuma- komasipala be Ubombo wasemntla Zululand. Ezi ke yayizizizukulwana zobukumkani buka Maputo (Mabudhu ngolwimi lweisiZulu). Ubukumkani bale ndawo bahlulwa kubini ngumda ophakathi kwelizwe lo Mzantsi Afrika kunye nelase Mozambique. Esi sizwe sona sasisondelene kakhulu nohlanga lwamaZulu, asifani nesizwe sama Tsonga ase Transvaal.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana