Iinyosi kunye ne Pollination

©Marinda Louw
Iinyosi ‘zidume’ ngobusi bazo (kunye nezinye izinto) ezizivelisayo, kodwa kuya kukhula nolwazi ngomsebenzi obalulekileyo owenziwa ziinyosi wokuthi zandise izityalo (pollination). Ixabiso leenyosi zobusi njenge pollinators lisenokuba ngaphaya kwexabiso lazo njengabavelisii bobusi. eMzantsi Afrika, ezinye izityalo zixhomekeke kwiinyosi nge pollination ukuze zivelise iziqhamo. Ezi ziquka amaqunube abomvu, amnyama kunye naluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, izityalo ze oli ezifana nee sunflowers kwakunye namandongomane azi almonds ne macadamia.

Iziqhamo ezingamagaqa ezifana namapere, iiplum kunye nama apile nazo zidinga iinyosi ukuze pollinate iintyatyambo zazo ukuze zivelise iziqhamo.

Abagcini-Nyosi vs Abalimi Bezityalo

©Louise Brodie
Izivumelwano zenkonzo ze pollination phakathi kwabagcini-nyosi kunye nabalimi bezityalo zixhomekeka kwindidi yesityalo okanye kumnini mhlaba, kutsho uGqr. Tlou Masehela we South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).

Kwizityalo ze citrus okanye ze canola nalapho kungadingeki pollination yanyosi, umfama akahlawuli mali kumgcini nyosi. Kodwa umfama usenokufuna intlobo ethile yomhrumo kumgcini-nyosi, nokuba bubusi.

Kwizityalo ezixhomekeke kwi pollination ezifana nama apile kunye neeplam, umfama uye ahlawule umgcini-nyosi. Apho kukho umxube wezityalo kunye nezityalo ezizikhulelayo, umfama kunye nomgcini-nyosi basenokugqiba kwindlela ethile yokutshintshiselana.

Kuyo nayiphi na imeko ke kwezi sele zikhankanyiwe, kusenokubakho isivumelano esityikityiweyo okanye singabikho. Kumaxesha amanintsi apho kudingeka iinkonzo ze pollination kubakho isivumelwano esityikityiweyo phakathi komgcini-nyosi kunye nomlimi wezityalo.

Iindleko zeeNkonzo ze Pollination

Inani elehla rhoqo lokutya kwendalo kwenyosi eMzantsi Afrika linciphisa nemvelisa yobusi. Libalelwa kwinani elimalunga ne 10 - 12 kg lemveliso yobusi kwi koloni nganye ngonyaka. Linani eliphantsi kakhulu eli xa kuthelekiswa ne Melika (30 kg ngonyaka) kunye ne Australia (50 kg ngonyaka). Ngaphezulu, ixabiso lobusi eMzantsi Afrika liphantsi kwaye liphantsi koxinzelelo nangakumbi ngenxa yobusi obuthengwa kwamanye amazwe axabisa kancinane. Amaxabiso amanye amazwe amalunye nama R50/kg (2017). Kwakhona, lamaxabiso aphantsi kunawase Melika (R75/kg) kunye nase Australia (R80/kg).

Imveliso ephantsi kunye nexabiso lobusi lonyusa ukubaluleka kokuhlawulelwa kweenkonzo ze pollination kuba gcini-nyosi boMzantsi Afrika, ukuze bakwazi ukuqhubeka neshishini labo.
Uphando olwenziwe ngu Mike Allsopp weAgricultural Research Council (ARC) kunye no Gqr. Masehela ngomnyaka ka 2017, lucacisa ukuba ixabiso lenkonzo ze pollination lixhomekeka ekufunweni kwazo kunye nobukho bazo kwaye ezinkonzo azihlali zikhona zihamba ngamaxesha athile onyaka.

eMelika izityalo ezidubula ekuqaleni kwentwasahlobo ezifana ne blueberry kunye nee almonds zikhuphisana neenkonzo ze pollination, nto leyo iye inyuse ixabiso le pollination. Uphando lwabo lubonisa ukuba kwiminyaka nje embalwa, ixabiso le almond pollination lisuke kuma $35 lenyuka laya kuma kuma $180 ngekoloni nganye. Izityalo ezidubula kade (umz. ama apile) zisenokuba neekoloni eziyinqwaba, nto leyo ke inokukhokelela kumaxabiso aphantsi epollination.

Amaxabiso ePollination

©Forest and Kim Starr
Kwilizwe loMzantsi Afrika, kukho ixabiso elibekiweyo nelikhuthazwayo lenkonzo ze pollination. Eli xabiso ngumkhomba ndlela kodwa alisetyenziswa ngabo bonke abagcini-nyosi. Kuye kuxhomekeke ngokwesityalo, ezinye izityalo zifaka uxinzelelo oluninzi kwiinyosi. Ezi ke zizityalo ezifana namaqunube, amathanga, iimacadamia kunye neelitchi, ngoko ke abanye abagcini-nyosi baye babize ixabiso elithe xhaxe kwinkonzo ze pollination yezi zityalo. Ixabiso le pollination libalwa nge formula ethile edibanisa ixabiso lokugcina iinyosi elifana nezithuthi, iswekile (ukutya) kunye nomsebenzi owenziwayo ukugcina ezi nyosi.

Ixabiso le pollination elicetyiswayo ngomnyaka ka 2018 ngama R802 kwisiza esinye se pollination. Isiza sepollination litsili elinye, elihlaliswa iintsuku ezifikelela kwiintsuku ezingama 21. Esi siza sikwabizwa nange pollination wave. Emva kweli lixa, umgcini nyosi angaphinda ahlawulise elixabiso linye okanye alicuthe emva kokuthetha-thethana kunye nomfama.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana