Iimvelaphi Ezohlukileyo zama Venda

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukuhlala e-Dzata

Ngenkulungwane yesine, iphondo lase Northern Province yalemihla yayihlala ama Khoisan nabantu ababephila ngokuphatha izixhobo (Early Iron Age), ababedibana ngokuthengisa, umtshato nomlo. Kwinkulungwane yesixhenxe (7th century) ukuya kamantla kwakuhlala ama Ngona nama Khoisan. Ukususela kuma 800, ikumkani imapungubwe yaqalisa, isukela ngase Soutpansberg nangase Mazantsi, ukunqumla iLimpopo River ukuya ku Matopos eMantla. Ikumkani ayizange ivume ukusuka kuma 1240, ze umbindi wamandla nezorhwebo zaya eMantla kwi kumkani enkulu ye Zimbabwe.

Kwasuka uqwalaselo lwaye kwi Khami ne Rozwi ye Zimbabwe lwalandela, kodwa inkcubeko ayizange ime ku Mazantsi eLimpopo: Shona-Venda ze iindlela zokwenza iimveliso zomdongo zamadonga zaqaliswa kwinkulungwane yama 14th ne 15th centuries. Awekho amadonga enziwe ngamatye athelekisekayo ngoko kulingana ne Zimbabwe enkulu ku Mazantsi-Ntshona we Northern Province, kodwa ezise ntabeni ziyabonisa ukudibana kwazo.

Okukhapha ukuvela kwezindawo, ukususela kuma 1400, amaza wabaphambukeli abathetha isiShona abasuka kwi Zimbabwe yalemihla (yaziwa ngama Venda njenge Thavatsindi) bahlala ekunqumleni kwamadlelo. Ekupheleni kwenkulungwane 17th century, elinye iliza, iSingo, ekuqikelelwa okokuba lisuka ko Rozwi, lwabaleka iDanangombe (Dhlo Dhlo) kufuphi nombindi we Zimbabwe, ekuqhawukeni komkhozi we Rozwi. Baqala bahlala eTshiendeulu, baze baya eDzata.

Ukuthabatha indawo yokuba ngu Mlawuli

I-Dzata ese Nzhelele Valley inodonga olude olwenziwe ngamatye, kwaye iminyaka engama 60 yayinaba lawuli abathi bathabatha indawo. Uninzi kwindawo zembali eThoho-ya-Ndou (Intloko ye Ndlovu), ababe ngabalawuli ababalekayo ze bathabatha igama ngexesha bathabatha ithroni. Ezinye zimbonakalisa njenge ndoda eyadibanisa amaqela iSoutpansberg ukwenza iVenda. Abanye bathi bongeza amandala ama Venda nendawo amabaphele kuyo ukucingela amaqela angqongileyo.

Ngonyaka wama 1760, iDzata yatsha yangqungqa. Isiphelo sika Thoho-ya-Ndou asaziwa: mhlawumbi wabaleka, ne Ngoma Lungundu, ukuyokuhlala kufuphi ne Limpopo, okanye kungenzeka wabulawa.

Ukunyamalala kuka Thoho-ya-Ndou, ikumkani laqhekeka kubini. Ukunikezela ngenkulungwane yeshumi elinethoba (19th century) kwenza amaqela amaninzi, apho iinkosi zawo (mahosi) zonke zathi zazibika okokuba zisuka eSingo. Ama Venda ayenazo iinkosi ezisuka kwezinye izizwe. Imithetho ngoqhubeko lalowo uzakuhlala etronini inzima, kwaye imvelaphi yama Venda ihlala inengxoxo zokuba ngubani ozokuthabatha indawo, ezingxoxo zisenzeka nangoku.

Iimbonakaliso ze Nkcubeko yama Venda

Nangona ukuphila phakathi kwama Venda, ama Lemba agcina indlela yokuphila (efana nokutyeshela ukutya inyama yehagu) kubonakalisa eyona mvelaphi yawo. Abanye bathi ama Lemba ase Northern Cape nase Zimbabwe zi nzalelwane zaba thengisi bama Arab ababephakathi kwe East Africa nom-mandla we Zimbabwe kwinkulungwane ezidlulileyo. Ama Lemba akholelwa okokuba angama Juda amnyama, iinzalelelwa zesizwe esilahlekileyo sase Israel.

Nokuba iingcambu zabo zithini, badlala indima enkulu njengabo babephatha iintsimbi ne golide phambi kokuba amakoloni afike. Mandulo, umfazi wama Lemba waye ngavumelekanga ukutshata indoda yom Venda, kwaye umtshato wendoda yom Lemba nomfazi wom Venda wawunqabile. Xa umfazi wom Venda ethe watshatha indoda yom Lemba kwakufuneka enzelwe isiko lokuba ngum Lemba. Kusenjalo ke, xakuthethwa nangalemihla.
Intengiso, imilo, nemitshato phakathi kwama Tsonga, Lobedu, Zulu, Swazi nabanye abantu bashiye imbonakaliso kwinkcubeko yama Venda.

Iqhawe lama Venda: iGubu laba Fileyo

©Dr Peter Magubane
Igubu, Ngoma Lungundu (igubu labafileyo okanye le Mwari), ibalulekile kumasiko ange Singo: xa bethe babethwa yinkosi ngamaxesha okugrogriswa, belibakhusela abantu xa behlaselwa babavumele boyise iintshaba zabo. Igubu lalisenza uloyiko kwintshaba, de zibaleke ngoloyiko, ziwe phantsi khilikiqi okanye zife.

Isintu sithi ke eli gubu lalisenza ama Singo okuba athabathe uhambo lwabo bathabathe umhlaba bahlale eMazantsi eLimpopo. Ngamanye amaxesha eligubu lalizidlala ngokwalo, isithixo- isinyanya esingabonakaliyo uMwari, owayenikeze amagubu kwinkosi zama Singo, yayidlalwa nguye uqobo.

Enye imbali ibalisa okokuba, ekutshabalaleni kwe Dzata, igubu lalifihlwa emqolombe ni kufuphi ne Netshiendeulu, abahlali bakhona yayingaba gcini bayo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie